Evidence Flashcards Preview

NY Bar 2014 > Evidence > Flashcards

Flashcards in Evidence Deck (167):
1

MBE Authority

Federal Rules of Evidence

2

Relevance

Evidence is relevant if it has ANY TENDENCY to make a material fact more or less probable than would be the case without the evidence.

3

Relevance - Admissibility

Relevant evidence is generally admissible UNLESS
1. Its probative value is substantially outweighed by: the risk of unfair prejudice / confusion / waste of time / misleading the jury / undue delay / unduly cumulative
2. It is excluded by some other rule.

4

Evidence of P's Accident History

Not admissible to show the P is accident prone (propensity for carelessness); UNLESS the event that caused P's injuries is [directly] in issue

5

Evidence of D's Accident History

NOT admissible to show propensity for carelessness

6

Evidence of D's Accident History: Exceptions

May be admitted if the other accident happened under SUBSTANTIALLY SIMILAR CIRCUMSTANCES to prove:
1. Existence of dangerous condition;
2. Causation of the accident; or
3. Prior notice to the D

7

Admissibility of Experiments and Tests

"Substantial similar circumstances" test

8

Past Conduct to Show Intent

Prior similar conduct of a person may be admissible to raise an inference of the person's intent on later occasion.

9

Past Sales

Past sales of similar property, in same general location, and close in time is some evidence of value of property at issue.

10

Evidence of Habit

Habit of a person/business is ADMISSIBLE as circumstantial evidence of how the person acted on the occasion at issue in the legislation.
[NOT when referring to general propensity and disposition]

11

Habit - Defined

Repetitive/frequent response to a
Particular set of circumstances
Under complete control of the circumstances **NYS only (this usually disqualifies driving circs)

12

Industry Custom as Standard of Care

Admissible

13

Liability Insurance

Inadmissible for the purpose of proving fault or the absence of fault.

14

Liability Insurance - Exception

May be admissible for a proper purpose other than fault (with limiting instruction); e.g. proving ownership or control if disputed.

15

Subsequent Remedial Measures

POST-ACCIDENT Repairs, design changes, and policy changes are INADMISSIBLE to prove negligence, culpable conduct, product defect, need for warning.

16

Subsequent Remedial Measures - Exceptions

Admissible for some other proper purpose;e.g. ownership, control, or feasibility of safer condition ONLY IF D disputes them

17

Subsequent Remedial Measures - NY Exception

Admissible in a STRICT PRODUCTS LIABILITY action against manufacturer to suggest the EXISTENCE OF A DEFECT (not in negligence theory)

18

Evidence of Settlement

In disputed civil claim, INADMISSIBLE to prove liability or impeach witness:
1. Actual settlements
2. Offers to settle
3. Statements of fact made during settlement discussions

19

Timing of settlement discussion excluded as evidence?

At time of discussion, a claim has been asserted, and there is a dispute about validity of claim or amount.
(Eg. if drivers discuss at scene of accident --> admissible)

20

Evidence of Settlement - Exceptions

1. Admissible to show bias (eg. if settling party receives settlement and then testifies, he might be biased)
2. MBE ONLY: Statements of fact to a CIVIL regulatory discussion w/ gov't are admissible in a subsequent CRIMINAL case (not offers to settle)
**Gov exception NOT adopted in NY

21

Plea Bargaining in Criminal Cases

The following are INADMISSIBLE
1. Offer to plead guilty
2. Withdrawn guilty plea [In NY - admissible in subsequent civil case]
3. Plea of nolo contendere (no contest)
4. Statements of fact
BUTGUILTY PLEAS ARE ADMISSIBLE

22

Plea Bargaining - withdrawn guilty plea

MBE: Never
NY: Admissible in subsequent civil case against the D.

23

Offers to Pay Medical Expenses

Offers to pay medical expenses are inadmissible regardless of whether or not there is a dispute.
*Statements of fact made in connection with offers to pay medical expenses ARE ADMISSIBLE

24

Character Evidence - 3 Purposes

1. Character is an ESSENTIAL element of the case (e.g. fraud) (never crim)
2. Conduct in conformity with character trait
3. Impeach witness's credibility

25

Character Evidence - Criminal Def.

INADMISSIBLE during the prosecution's case-in-chief.
BUT
Crim Def. may introduce OPINION and REPUTATION testimony BUT THAT OPENS THE DOOR TO REBUTTAL

26

Character Evidence - Criminal Def. in NY

Crim. Def. may ONLY introduce character evidence through REPUTATION and NOT OPINION testimony.

27

Character Evidence - Prosecution's Rebuttal

If D opens the door with good character evidence, then Pros. may
1. Cross-examine witnesses to impeach knowledge of D (only asking!); and
2. Call own reputation and opinion witnesses [NY: reputation only]
*NY* PRIOR CONVICTIONS are admissible to rebut good character evidence.

28

Victim's Character - Self Defense

Crim. D may introduce evidence of victim's violent character to prove victim's conduct in conformity that the victim struck first

29

Victim's Character - Self Defense NY Rule*

Character evidence to prove that the victim struck first - is inadmissible in NY.

30

Victim's Character - Self Defense & Pros. Rebuttal

Once D opens the door, P can introduce evidence of
1. V's good character for peacefulness
2. D's bad character for violence

31

Victim's Character - D's Knowledge of V's Character for Violence

MS & NY - D can offer evidence of HIS OWN AWARENESS through reputation or bad acts to show D's state of mind (FEAR).

32

Victim's Character - Sexual Assault

Rape Shield Law - Evidence of sexual propensity or sexual behavior by VICTIM are INADMISSIBLE
EXCEPT
1. to show that someone other than the D was the source of injury/semen,
2. sexual activity with D to show a defense of consent,
3. other DUE PROCESS situations (very rare) (eg. victim had motive to claim rape due to love triangle...)

33

Character Evidence - Civil Cases

Generally INADMISSIBLE by P and D to prove conduct in conformity with that character trait.

34

Character Evidence - Civil Cases Exceptions

Admissible if character trait is an ESSENTIAL ELEMENT of a claim:
1. Negligent hiring (employer should have known reputation)
2. Defamation (D shows V's dishonesty)
3. Child custody dispute (fitness of parents)

35

D's Crimes and Bad Acts - General Rule

Bad acts or other crimes are not admissible during the prosecution's case-in-chief if offered to show D is more likely to have committed the present crime

36

D's Crimes and Bad Acts - Exceptions

Admissible if to show something specific about crime being charged, eg:
1. Motive
2. Intent
3. Mistake or Accident, the absence thereof
4. Identity
5. Common scheme or plan
[MIMIC] (even in case-in-chief)

37

D's Crimes and Bad Acts - Standard of Proof for MIMIC Excpeptions

By conviction, or
MBE: By evidence - low standard - "conditional relevance" - reasonablu juror could conclude he committed.
*NY Distinction - higher standard: "clear and convincing evidence."

38

What does court weigh in MIMIC Exceptions

Probative value v prejudice.
Give limiting instructions!

39

D's Prior Sexual Misconduct

MBE: In a sexual assault case, a D's specific prior sexual assaults are admissible for showing D's PROPENSITY FOR SEXUAL MISCONDUCT
(Acts only, not reputation or opinion)
**Not adopted in NY. Only under MIMIC

40

Methods of Authentication - Documents

1. Witness's personal knowledge
2. Handwriting
3. Ancient Document Rule
4. Solicited Reply Doctrine

41

Handwriting Authentication

a. lay witness w/ personal knowledge of handwriting
b. expert
c. jury comparison
(Judge does NOTneed to be convinced. Court determines that there is sufficient evidence from which a REASONABLE JUROR can conclude it is genuine. Then jury decides.)

42

Ancient Document Rule

Authenticity inferred IF
1. 20+ years old (30 in NY), AND
2. facially free of suspicion, AND
3. found in a place of natural custody

43

Solicited Reply Doctrine

Document can be authenticated by evidence that it was received in response to a prior communication to the alleged author.

44

Self-Authenticating Documents

These are presumed authentic:
1. Official publications
2. Certified copies of public or private records on file in public office
3. Newspapers or periodicals
4. Trade inscriptions and labels
5. Acknowledged document
6.Commercial paper

45

Authentication of Photographs

Witness may testify on the basis of personal knowledge that the photograph is a "fair and accurate representation" of the people or objects portrayed.
Even if someone else took the picture.

46

Best Evidence Rule - when?

A party who seeks to prove the contents of a writing.
2 principle situations:
- legally operative document (deeds…)
- Witness is testifying to fact learned SOLELY from reading the writing
NOT when witness with personal knowledge testifies to a fact that exists independently of the writing

47

Best Evidence Rule - requirements

1. produce the original writing, OR
2. provide an acceptable excuse for its absence AND a copy or oral testimony

48

Bets Evidence Rule - what is the "original"?

Whatever parties intended as the original.
Printout of computer stored data is an original.

49

Best Evidence Rule - Duplicates

Duplicates are copies accurately reproduced by mechanical means (photocopies) and are ADMISSIBLE to the same extent as the original,
UNLESS it would be UNFAIR, or genuine question raised as to AUTHENTICITY OF ORIGINAL.

50

Best Evidence Rule - *NY* photocopies

Admissible as duplicate only when made in the ordinary course of business.

51

Best Evidence Rule - Excuses

1. Lost or cannot be found with due diligence
2. Destroyed without bad faith
3. Cannot be obtained with legal process
(THEN - secondary evidence is permissible)

52

Best Evidence Rule - Escapes

1. Voluminous records
2. Certified copies of public records
3. Collateral documents (not important to merits)

53

Children Witnesses - New York Only

General rule: A child of any age may testify under oath if the child understands and appreciates the duty to tell the truth.
(Civil/crim distinctions in next cards)

54

Children Witnesses - New York Civil Cases

A child must be able to testify under oath

55

Children Witnesses - New York Criminal Cases

A child under the age of 9 who cannot understand the duty of an oath may still testify,
BUT
a conviction cannot be based solely on the unsworn testimony of a child.
There must be SOME CORROBORATING evidence of the crime.

56

Dead Man's Statute*

MBE: Personal interest does not make witness incompetent.
*NY* and others - Dead Man's Statute:
1. In a CIVIL action only,
2. an INTERESTED WITNESS
3. is INCOMPETENT to testify
4. against the estate of a decedent
5. concerning a PERSONAL TRANSACTION OR COMMUNICATION between the interested person and decedent. (NOT JUST TALKING, ALSO RELATED ACTS!!)

57

NY Dead Man's Statute Exception

In an auto accident the surviving interested party MAY testify regarding "facts of negligence arising out of the ownership/operation" of car, about the
1. surviving party's observations of the decedent's conduct and demeanor, BUT
2. May not testify about oral statements made by the decedent.

58

Leading Questions

Generally:
1. Not allowed on direct
2. Allowed on cross

59

Leading Questions - Exceptions

Allowed on direct if:
1. Introductory matters
2. Youthful or forgetful witnesses
3. Hostile witness
4. Adverse party or under adverse party's control

60

Writings - Refreshing Recollection

Witnesses may NOT read from prepared writings;
BUT if witness's memory fails him, he may be SHOWN a memorandum to job his memory.

61

Writings - Past Recollection Recorded

Contents of the writing may be READ to the jury IF ALL OF THE FOLLOWING:
1. showing writing to witness fails to job memory
2. witness had personal knowledge at former time
3. writing was either made by witness, or adopted by witness
4. making or adoption occurred while the event was fresh in the witness's mind
5. witness can vouch for accuracy of writing when made or adopted

62

Writings - Past Recollection Recorded - adversary rights?

To inspect document
Use in cross-exam
Introduce into evidence

63

Writings - Past Recollection Recorded NY Distinction ("hearsay exception")

If 5-part foundation is made, the writing may be SHOWN to the jury.
MBE: the proponent may only READ it to the jury.

64

Opinion Testimony - Lay Witness

Lay opinion admissible if:
1. opinion is RATIONALLY BASED on witness's perception (i.e. personal knowledge)
2. opinion must be helpful to the jury in deciding and issue of fact (i.e. relevant)

65

Opinion Testimony - Expert Witness

1. Qualified
2. Proper subject matter
3. Basis of opinion

66

Expert Witness - Qualifications

Qualifications based on education, experience, and training

67

Expert Witness - Subject Matter

Proper subject matter - scientific, technical or other specialized knowledge that will be HELPFUL to the jury in deciding a fact

68

Expert Witness - Basis of Opinion

Must have opinion based on REASONABLE DEGREE OF PROBABILITY or REASONABLE CERTAINTY
Expert may draw upon
1. Personal knowledge (e.g. treating physician)
2. Other evidence in the trial record (e.g. X-rays) presente to him as hypo
3. Facts NOT in the record if the material is of a type reasonably relied upon by experts in that particular field.

69

Expert witness - Facts not in Record - disclose to jury?

Expert may identify type of facts but may not disclose contents (inadmissible facts).
Opponent may disclose on cross-exam.
Judge has discretion to disclose for purpose of helping jury evaluate opinion.

70

Expert Witness - Reliability - MBE test

Court serves as "gatekeeper" using the Daubert factors:
1. T esting of principles or methodology
2. R ate of error
3. A cceptance by other experts in same discipline
4. P eer review and publication

71

Expert Witness - Reliability NY test

The method used by the expert must have achieved general acceptance in the relevant scientific field (Frye standard)

72

Expert Testimony - Learned Treatise

An expert on the stand may read relevant portions of a learned treatise into the record as SUBSTANTIVE evidence if ESTABLISHED AS RELIABLE AUTHORITY (hearsay exception).

73

Expert Testimony - Learned Treatise NY Distinction

NO HEARSAY EXCEPTION FOR CONTENTS OF A LEARNED TREATISE
1. On Direct: Can only be used to show the basis of the expert's opinion.
2. On Cross: Treatise can only be used to impeach ONLY IF
a. expert relied on the treatise in developing own opinion; or
b. acknowledged on cross that it is a reliable authority (have to ask him!).
NEVER AS SUBSTANTIVE EVIDENCE.

74

Opinion Testimony - Ultimate Issues

Opinion testimony regarding the ultimate issue in a case is ADMISSIBLE provided it is HELPFUL and not excluded by another rule.
i.e. No legal jargon

75

Opinion Testimony - Ultimate Issues - MBE Mental Health distinction

Can object if expert says D had or didn't have relevent mental state at relevant time.
Can only say what a person with that disease knows generally.

76

Cross-Examination (Scope)

Party has a right to cross-examine on the proper subject matter:
1. Matters WITHIN THE SCOPE of direct examination; and
2. Matters that test the witness's CREDIBILITY

77

Bolstering own witness?

Not allowed
Exception - allowed after witness's credibility has been impeached (rehabilitation)

78

Prior Consistent Statements

Not allowed until credibility is impeached (hearsay, minimal probative evidence)

79

Prior Consistent Statements - Exception

Witness's prior identification of a person

80

Impeaching Own Witness (FRE)

Any party can impeach any witness

81

Impeaching Own Witness (NY)

Generally, a party may not impeach her own witness

82

Impeaching Own Witness: NY Exception

A party may impeach her own witness with only a PRIOR INCONSISTENT STATEMENT but only if it was:
1. made in writing and signed by the witness; or
2. made in oral testimony under oath

83

Impeaching Own Witness: NY Criminal Exception

A party may impeach her own witness with only a PRIOR INCONSISTENT STATEMENT but only if it was:
1. made in writing and signed by the witness; or
2. made in oral testimony under oath; AND
3. the prior inconsistent statement may be used only if the witness's current testimony is AFFIRMATIVELY DAMAGING to the party who called the witness, not merely a "cloud on credibility." (Not - "I don't remember")

84

Impeachment Methods

1. Prior inconsistent Statements
2. Bias, interest, or motive to misrepresent
3. Sensory deficiencies
4. Bad reputation or opinion about witness's character for truthfulness
5. Criminal convictions
6. Bad acts that reflect adversely on witness's character for truthfulness
7. Contradiction

85

Impeachment Procedures (2 Types)

1. Ask the witness about the impeaching fact with the aim of having the witness admit it
2. Prove the impeaching fact with EXTRINSIC evidence

86

Impeachment Methods that May Be Proven with Extrinsic Evidence

All EXCEPT
Prior bad acts; and
Collateral contradictory facts

87

Impeachment with Extrinsic Evidence - Confrontation First Required (first ask about fact)

MBE: Bias
NY: Prior inconsistent statement

88

Prior Inconsistent Statements

The prior inconsistent statement is admissible ONLY for the purpose of IMPEACHMENT and NOT as SUBSTANTIVE EVIDENCE

89

Prior Inconsistent Statements - MBE Exception for substantive

If the statement was made:
1. under oath, at a
2. testimonial proceeding
(*NY* only to impeach, never as substantive)

90

Prior Inconsistent Statements - Must witness be confronted first?

Federal: No, but witness must be given opportunity to explain later.
*NY* Yes! On the stand!
EXCEPTION (Fed, NY): If witness is OPPOSING PARTY - no need to give opportunity to explain. (And - party admission admissible as substantive)

91

Impeachment - Bias: Must witness be confronted first?

Federal: Yes
NY: No

92

Impeachment - Bias: May it be proven with extrinsic evidence?

Yes.

93

Impeachment - Sensory Deficiencies: Confrontation Required?

No

94

Impeachment - Sensory Deficiencies: Extrinsic Evidence allowed?

Yes.

95

Bad Reputation or Opinion: Confrontation Required?

No.

96

Bad Reputation or Opinion - Extrinsic Evidence Allowed?

Yes.

97

Bad Reputation or Opinion: NY

Only reputation testimony allowed - NO opinion testimony.
(In all jurisdictions - no specific acts)

98

Prior Criminal Convictions for Impeachment: Types of Convictions under FRE

Permissible types of convictions
A. Conviction of any crime as to which the prosecution was required to prove FALSE STATEMENT as an element of the crime;
OR
B. A FELONY unless the probative value is outweighed by unfair prejudice
In each case conviction or release from prison MUST BE WITHIN 10 YEARS.

99

Impeachment: Types of Convictions in NY

All prior criminal convictions are admissible for IMPEACHMENT.
No need to balance unfair prejudice.

100

Impeachment: Types of Convictions in NY Criminal D's

Testifying D:
Must conduct hearing on balance between PROBATIVE VALUE versus risk of unfair prejudice.
- Probative: Seriousness of crime, relation to trust/deception
- Unfairly prejudicial: Similarity to current offense, inflammatory nature

101

Impeachment: Prior Bad Acts

A witness may be asked about a prior bad act if it relates to DECEIT or DISHONESTY through CONFRONTATION ONLY.
In the COURT'S DISCRETION.

102

Impeachment: Prior Bad Acts in NY

Any prior bad acts that is VICIOUS, CRIMINAL, or IMMORAL.
In the COURT'S DISCRETION.
Crim D testifying: Need hearing to balance probative value and prejudice.

103

Impeachment: Prior Bad Acts - Extrinisic?

No!
But may be allowed if bad act is shown for another purpose, like bias, where extrinsic is permitted.

104

Impeachment: Contradiction & Extrinsic Evidence

Extrinsic evidence is NOT allowed for the purpose of proving a contradictory fact which is COLLATERAL.

105

Rehabilitation - General Rule

A witnes may be rehabilitated only after the witness's credibility has been attacked through impeachment

106

Rehabilitation - 2 Methods

1. Showing witness's good character for truthfulness
2. Prior consistent statement to rebut a charge of recent fabrication.

107

Rehabilitation - Showing good character for truthfulness

Use a character witness to testify about
1. Reputation; and/or
2. Opinion (Not in NY)

108

Rehabilitation - Prior Consistent Statement

Admissible if the statement was made prior to the motive to fabricate arose for
1. rehabilitation; AND
2. MBE ONLY: as substantive evidence that the prior statement was true (hearsay exclusion)

109

Rehabilitation - Prior Consistent Statement NY

Admissible ONLY for rehabilitation and NOT as substantive evidence.

110

Privileges - FRE Generally
(For questions on federal court)

1. Cases in fed court arising under FEDERAL SUBSTANTIVE LAW are governed by the principles of the CL as they may be interpreted by the federal courts in the light of reason and experience.
2. If it's a fed court matter based in diversity jurisdiction, the court must apply PRIVILEGE LAW OF THE STATE whose substantive law is applicable.

111

Attorney-Client Privilege: Elements

Applies to:
1. Confidential communications
2. between attorney and client
3. made during professional, legal consultation
UNLESS privilege is waived by the client; OR
an EXCEPTION applies

112

Attorney-Client Privilege: Subject Matter Waiver

A voluntary waiver of the privilege as to some communications will also waive the privilege as to other communications if:
1. the partial disclosure is INTENTIONAL
2. the disclosed and undisclosed communications concern the SAME SUBJECT MATTER
3. fairness requires that the disclosed and undisclosed communications be considered together.

113

Attorney-Client Privilege: Inadvertent disclosure

An inadvertent disclose of a privileged communication will NOT waive the privilege so long as the privilege-holder
1. took REASONABLE PRECAUTIONS TO PREVENT the disclosure; and
2. takes reasonable steps to CORRECT the error.

114

Attorney-Client Privilege: Exceptions

1. Future crimes or frauds
2. Client puts legal advice at issue
3. Attorney-client dispute

115

Physician-Patient Privilege: Elements

Applies to:
1. Confidential communications or information acquired by physician from patient
2. for the purpose of diagnosis or treatment of a medical condition

116

Physician-Patient Privilege: Federal Substantive Law

Privilege exists ONLY for psychotherapy (not regular physicians and doctors)

117

Physician-Patient Privilege: Exceptions

Privilege is lost if patient expressly or impliedly puts mental or physical condition in issue (e.g. plaintiff in personal injury action)

118

Spousal Immunity

A spouse cannot be COMPELLED to testify about ANYTHING against the defendant spouse so long as they are MARRIED at the time of testimony.
*The testifying spouse holds the privilege.
**Federal/MS Criminal Cases ONLY!!

119

Spousal Immunity - NY

NY does NOT recognize the spousal immunity privilege.

120

Spousal Confidential Communications

A spouse is not ALLOWED and CAN'T BE COMPELLED to disclose a CONFIDENTIAL COMMUNICATION said DURING THE MARRIAGE.
*Both spouses hold this privilege requiring waiver by both spouses.

121

Spousal Privileges: Exceptions

1. Communications or acts in furtherance of jointly perpetrated future crime or fraud.
2. Communications or acts destructive of family unit (e.g. spousal or child abuse)
3. Civil litigation between the spouses

122

Does divorce end spousal priv?

Spousal immunity: Yes. Must be married at time of trial.
Spousal communications: No. Divorce does not end privilege.

123

Hearsay - Defined

Out of court statement of a person (oral or in writing)
being offered to prove the truth of the matter asserted in the statement.

124

Non-Hearsay Out of Court Statements

An out-of-court statement being offered for some reason OTHER than for the truth of the matter asserted.

125

Non-Hearsay Statement Purpose types (3)

1. Verbal/legally operative Act
2. To show the effect on the person who heard or read the statement
3. State of mind

126

Prior Witness Statement Exclusions (3)

1. Witness's prior statement of identification of a person
2. Witness's prior inconsistent statement if made orally under oath during a testimonial hearing. [NY - only to impeach]
3. Witness's prior consistent statement if made before the motive for untruthfulness arose. [NY - only to rehabilitate]

127

Hearsay Exception - Party Opponent Statements

Any statement made by a party is admissible if it is offered AGAINST the opposing party.
*Also called Statement of Party Admission

128

Party-Opponent Statements: Adoptive Admission

If a party expressly or impliedly adopts a statement made by another person, it is as though the party herself made the statement.
Adoption by silence occurs when a party remains silent under circumstances in which a reasonable person would protest if the statement were false.

129

Party-Opponent Statements: Vicarious Party Admission - MBE

Statement by agent/employee is admissible against principal/employer if statement concerns matter within scope of agency/employment and is made during the existence of the agency/employment relationship.

130

Party-Opponent Statements: Vicarious Party Admission *NY*

The statement of an agent/employee is admissible as a vicarious party admission ONLY IF the principal/employer gave the agent/employee the AUTHORITY to make statements on the principal/employer's behalf.*The speaking-agent rule

131

Party-Opponent Statements - Co-conspirator statements

The statement of a co-conspirator is admissible against a party who was a member of the conspiracy if the statement was made
1. during; and
2. in the furtherance of the conspiracy.

132

Hearsay Exceptions (12)

1. Forfeiture by wrongdoing
2. Former testimony
3. Statement against interest
4. Dying declaration
5. Excited utterance
6. Present sense impression
7. Present state of mind
8. Declaration of intent
9. Present physical condition
10. Statement for the purpose of obtaining medical treatment or diagnosis.
11. Business records
12. Public records

133

6th Amend Confrontation

Trumps exceptions!
The prosecution may not use a hearsay statement against the criminal D if:
1. the statement is testimonial
2. declarant is unavailable, AND
3. D has had no opportunity for cross examination

134

6th Amend Confrontation - Testimonial: Grand jury testimony

Testimonial

135

6th Amend Confrontation - Testimonial: Police interrogation

1. Testimonial IF the PRIMARY PURPOSE of the questioning is to establish or prove PAST EVENTS relevant to a CRIMINAL PROSECUTION
2. NOT testimonial if statement is made to enable police assistance in an emergency.

136

6th Amend Confrontation - Testimonial: BUSINESS RECORDS

NOT testimonial

137

6th Amend Confrontation - Testimonial: SWORN AFFIDAVITS

ARE TESTIMONIAL

138

6th Amend Confrontation - Testimonial: FORENSIC LABORATORY REPORT

Testimonial IF its primary purpose is to accuse a TARGETED INDIVIDUAL of criminal conduct.

139

Forfeiture Exception

Any type of hearsay statement is admissible against a defendant whose wrongdoing made the witness unavailable if the court finds:
1. by a preponderance of the evidence
2. that the D's conduct was specifically designed to prevent the witness from testifying.
* applies to hearsay and confrontation objections!

140

Forfeiture Exception - NY

Standard of proof is CLEAR AND CONVINCING evidence.

141

Hearsay Exception - Former Testimony

the former testimony of a now-unavailable witness, if given at a former proceeding, is admissible against a party who, on the prior occasion, had an opportunity and motive to cross-examine or develop the testimony of the witness.

142

Hearsay Exceptions: Grounds of Unavailability

1. Privilege
2. Absence from the jurisdiction
3. Illness or death
4. Lack of memory
5. Refusal to testify

143

Hearsay Exceptions: Grounds of Unavailability - NY

Additional grounds in civil cases:
6. Declarant is 100 miles or more from the courthouse; or
7. Declarant is a physician

144

Hearsay Exceptions - Statements Against Interest
מיגו

an UNAVAILABLE declarant's statement against his or her
1. pecuniary interest
2. proprietary interest
3. penal interest
*money, property, or criminal liability

145

Hearsay Exceptions - Statements Against Penal Interest

In criminal cases, a statement against penal interest must be corroborated with other evidence indicating trustworthiness.

146

Hearsay Exceptions - Dying Declaration: Defined

A statement made under a belief of impending and certain death by a now-unavailable declarant concerning the cause or surrounding circumstances of the declarant's death.
*"Swift and certain doom"

147

Hearsay Exceptions - Dying Declaration: Criminal Cases

Must be a homicide case

148

Hearsay Exceptions - Dying Declaration: Civil Cases

Any type of civil case

149

Hearsay Exceptions - Dying Declaration: NY

Criminal homicide case only - no civil cases allowed.

150

Hearsay Exceptions - Excited Utterance (defined)

Statement concerning a STARTLING event and made while declarant is STILL UNDER THE STRESS OF EXCITEMENT caused by the event.

151

Hearsay Exceptions - Present Sense Impression (defined)

Description of an event made while the event is occurring or immediately thereafter.

152

Hearsay Exceptions - Present Sense Impression: NY

must be corroborated with additional evidence

153

Hearsay Exceptions - Present State of Mind

A contemporaneous statement concerning declarant's present state of mind, feelings, emotions.

154

Hearsay Exceptions: Declaration of Intent

A statement of declarant's intent to do something in the future, including the intent to engage in conduct with another person

155

Hearsay Exceptions: Declaration of Intent - NY

NY requires:
1. Corroborating evidence
2. Declarant is unavailable

156

Hearsay Exceptions - Present Physical Condition

Statement made to ANYONE regarding declarant's CURRENT physical condition

157

Hearsay Exceptions - Present Physical Condition: NY

If a statement of present physical condition is made to a layperson, rather than a medical professional, the declarant must be UNAVAILABLE.

158

Hearsay Exceptions: Statement made for the purpose of obtaining medical treatment or diagnosis

Statement made to ANYONE concerning the declarant's
1. Present symptoms
2. Past symptoms
3. General cause of condition
(NOT identifying tortfeasor, describing nature of liability)
(NOT statement by physician to patient)
(NY: NOT statements to doc in preparation of expert testimony)

159

Hearsay Exceptions: Business Records

1. Records of a business of any type
2. Made in the regular course of business
3. The business regularly keeps such records
4. Made contemporaneously with the event
5. Contains information observed by employees OR a statement that falls within an independent hearsay exception.

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Hearsay Exceptions: Business Records - proof

1. Call witness to prove 5 points
2. Written certification under oath

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Hearsay Exceptions: Business Records - when permitted in NY?

ONLY:
Civil: records of NONPARTY that produced records for inspection in pretrial discovery
Any time: if from hospital, state/local gov

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Hearsay Exceptions: Public Records

Records of a public office or agency setting forth:
1. The activities of the office or agency; or
2. matters observed pursuant to a duty imposed by law; or
3. findings of fact or opinion resulting from an investigation authorized by law

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Hearsay Exceptions: Public Records Exception

A police report prepared for prosecutorial purposes

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Hearsay Exceptions: Public Records Exception - NY

In NY - not usually used; resort to Business Records exception.
If gov investigatory reports - when report has adequate facts and person giving opinion is qualified.

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Double hearsay

Each one must qualify for exception separately.

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Impeach hearsay declarant?

Yes, by any method.

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When can testimony be stricken

When unresponsive to a question asked.
Only examining attorney can move to strike.