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Flashcards in Core Immunology Deck (36):
1

Summary of Immunology

Autoimmune D (AD)
Diagnosing AD
Allergies
Immunodeficiency
Infections in immunocompromised Immunotherapeutics
Transplant immunology

2

Define AD

= loss of central/peripheral tolerance

(autoreative B/T cells/general inflammation)

3

What are the clinical features of someone who has an AD?

F > M
Elderly
Smoking
previous trauma/infection there - goes overboard
Chronic - remision/relapse

4

List some organ-specific AD

Hoshimoto's thyroiditis - hypothyroidism, auto-ab

Graves - hyperthyroidism, TSH

Pernicious anaemia - B12

MG - auto-ab in AChR

5

RA and SLE are examples of systemic AD. What is the acronym for SLE?

SOAP BRAIN MF

6

AD are diagnosed using inflammatory markers such as?

ESR - viscosity of blood, high
CRP
Ferritin
Fibrinogen
Haptoglobin
Albumin - low
Complement - low

7

List some specific auto-ab used to detect systemic AD.

SLE - ANA, Anti-dsDNA

RA - RF, ACPA

ANCA Vasculitis - ANCA

8

Allergy = hypersensitivity reaction = damaging/unpleasant response of normal IS to non-harmful antigens in pre-sensitised host.

What are common allergens?

Cow's milk
Nuts
Legumes
Fish
Eggs
Crustaceans
Cereals

9

Whcih hypersensitivity reaction will be seen in ABO incompatbility and haemolytic anaemias?

Type II: Cytotoxic

10

Vasculitis and SLE fall into which hypersensitivity type?

Type III: Immune-mediated

11

Which reaction is fast onset and includes the atopic triad and anaphylaxis?

Type I: IgE mediated (Allergy)

12

Type IV hypersensitivity reaction is what?

T cell-mediated

weeks onset

13

The atopic triad consists of Atopic dematitis, Asthama and Rhinitis. T/F?

True

14

Whats the main trigger of the atopic triad?

House dust mite

15

List the treatments for each atopic triad condition

Rhinitis - anti-histamines

Asthma - Salbutamol

Atopic dermatitis - Topical steroids, moisturisers

16

Standard treatment for Anaphylaxis?

Adrenaline

17

What systems are affected in anaphylaxis?

Respiratory
CV
Skin
GI

18

State 4 tests used to diagnose allergies

Specific [IgE]

Skin prick test

Intradermal test

Oral challenge

19

2" immunodeficiency is acquired and transient and often minor. List possible causes.

Stress
Malnutrition
cancer
Steroids
Chemo
AIDS
Irradiaiton
Surgery

20

1" immunodeficiencies are rare and due to IEM. What is a common presentation?

Recurrent infections

Child

21

Which immunodef presents with slightly raised CRP after infection?

IRAK-4 def

22

Which immunodef is X-linked and presents as recurrent abcesses?

CGD

23

which cells are defective in XLA?

X-linked Agammaglobinaemia

B cells

24

Low [T cells] is likely to be which IEM?

SCID

bone marrow transplant, gene therapy

25

Which groups of people are immunocompromised?

Very young
Elderly
Preg
HIV etc

26

How would you manange an infection in an immunocompromised patient?

PREVENTION: prophylaxis, hand hygiene, vaccine

Treat known infection

Remove infected lines

Stop immunosupression

27

What molecule is important in transplant?

MHC

28

HLA- macthing in patients involves what tests?

1. Serum-testing

2. Cross-matching

29

Immunisation and replacement therapies are a form of immunosupression or immunopotenitiation?

Immunopotenitiation

30

What is a common drug type used in immunosupression?

Corticosteroids

31

What other drugs are used in immunosupression?

Drugs targeting lymphocytes (Ciclosporin, inhibit T cells)

Cytotoxc drugs (Methotrexate - RA, Vasculitis)

DMARDS (Anti-TNF - RA, Crohns) - TB risk

32

Neutropenic patients are most suspeptible to what kind of infections?

Treatment?

Psuedomonal infections
Fungal infections

Broad spectrum antibiotics + antifungals

33

Which oppurtunistic pathogens can infect someone who had a splenectomy?

3 usual suspects (bacteria)
Malaria

34

What is the autoimmune condition that leads to ischaemia & fibrosis?

Scleroderma

35

An anti-body medated rejection a few hrs/days after a transplant is what type fo rejection?

Hyperacute

36

Wegeners Granulomatosis is a type of ANCA Vasculitis. T/F?

T