Flashcards in Core Immunology Deck (36):
Summary of Immunology
Autoimmune D (AD)
Infections in immunocompromised Immunotherapeutics
= loss of central/peripheral tolerance
(autoreative B/T cells/general inflammation)
What are the clinical features of someone who has an AD?
F > M
previous trauma/infection there - goes overboard
Chronic - remision/relapse
List some organ-specific AD
Hoshimoto's thyroiditis - hypothyroidism, auto-ab
Graves - hyperthyroidism, TSH
Pernicious anaemia - B12
MG - auto-ab in AChR
RA and SLE are examples of systemic AD. What is the acronym for SLE?
SOAP BRAIN MF
AD are diagnosed using inflammatory markers such as?
ESR - viscosity of blood, high
Albumin - low
Complement - low
List some specific auto-ab used to detect systemic AD.
SLE - ANA, Anti-dsDNA
RA - RF, ACPA
ANCA Vasculitis - ANCA
Allergy = hypersensitivity reaction = damaging/unpleasant response of normal IS to non-harmful antigens in pre-sensitised host.
What are common allergens?
Whcih hypersensitivity reaction will be seen in ABO incompatbility and haemolytic anaemias?
Type II: Cytotoxic
Vasculitis and SLE fall into which hypersensitivity type?
Type III: Immune-mediated
Which reaction is fast onset and includes the atopic triad and anaphylaxis?
Type I: IgE mediated (Allergy)
Type IV hypersensitivity reaction is what?
The atopic triad consists of Atopic dematitis, Asthama and Rhinitis. T/F?
Whats the main trigger of the atopic triad?
House dust mite
List the treatments for each atopic triad condition
Rhinitis - anti-histamines
Asthma - Salbutamol
Atopic dermatitis - Topical steroids, moisturisers
Standard treatment for Anaphylaxis?
What systems are affected in anaphylaxis?
State 4 tests used to diagnose allergies
Skin prick test
2" immunodeficiency is acquired and transient and often minor. List possible causes.
1" immunodeficiencies are rare and due to IEM. What is a common presentation?
Which immunodef presents with slightly raised CRP after infection?
Which immunodef is X-linked and presents as recurrent abcesses?
which cells are defective in XLA?
Low [T cells] is likely to be which IEM?
bone marrow transplant, gene therapy
Which groups of people are immunocompromised?
How would you manange an infection in an immunocompromised patient?
PREVENTION: prophylaxis, hand hygiene, vaccine
Treat known infection
Remove infected lines
What molecule is important in transplant?
HLA- macthing in patients involves what tests?
Immunisation and replacement therapies are a form of immunosupression or immunopotenitiation?
What is a common drug type used in immunosupression?
What other drugs are used in immunosupression?
Drugs targeting lymphocytes (Ciclosporin, inhibit T cells)
Cytotoxc drugs (Methotrexate - RA, Vasculitis)
DMARDS (Anti-TNF - RA, Crohns) - TB risk
Neutropenic patients are most suspeptible to what kind of infections?
Broad spectrum antibiotics + antifungals
Which oppurtunistic pathogens can infect someone who had a splenectomy?
3 usual suspects (bacteria)
What is the autoimmune condition that leads to ischaemia & fibrosis?
An anti-body medated rejection a few hrs/days after a transplant is what type fo rejection?