Flashcards in Core Microbiology Deck (55):
THINK SMART THEN FOCUS. For what?
State the two most comomonly used antibiotic groups.
(both cell wall synthesis inhibitors)
Name the other antibiotic groups.
Aminoglycosides - Gentamicin
MLS: Macrolides, Lincosomides, Streptogramins
Oxalidinones - Linezolid
(All protein synthesis inhibitors)
Quionolines & Fluroquinolones (DNA synthesis inhibtors
What drug amongst others is commonly used to treat TB?
List 8 common side effects of antibiotics
How is antibiotic resistance spread?
Resistance genes in TRANSPOSONS via plasmids
Are virus' intracellular or extracellular organisms?
- Take over cells and replicate itself then releases
Examples of chronic viral infections that are latent.
Whats the common stem in antiviral names?
What are the 2 drugs used to treat Hep C?
State the 2 targets in antifungal drugs.
Ergosterol - cell membrane
B-1,3 Glycan - cell wall
There are 5 classes of antifungal drugs. What spectrum are they?
All BROAD SPECTRUM
What are the 5 classes of antifungal drugs?
Allylamine (inhibit ergosterol synthesis)
Azoles (inhibit ergosterol synthesis)
Echinocandins (inhibit B-1,3 glucan synthase)
Amphotericin B is a polyene antifungal. It is used as lipid-associated AmB. Why?
Reduce nephrotoxicity and allergic reactions
- used IV, systemic fungal infections
What drug is an allylamine? What is it used for?
- dermaphtye infections
Azoles consist of what 2 subtypes? Which one is less toxic and therefore given IV/oral?
Triazoles* - Fluconzole, Itraconazole
Clotrimazole (in Canistan) is an example of an Imidazole drug. What type of infections is it used for?
What are the 2 adverse effects of azoles?
Drug interactions - inhibits CYP450 - increases [drugs]
Which antigfunals require therapeutic drug monitoring?
What are the man ways a child can present with a viral infection?
Fever + rash
The "slapped cheek" appearence is caused by what?
What are the other symptoms?
Fever + rash
What is a very common virus that causes bronchiolitis in almost all by 1yr?
Respiratory Syncytial virus (RSV)
How are most viral infections in children investigated?
Most viru's in children are self-limiting and managed supportively, rehydrating. However, some viruses require treatment. Which ones are they and their drugs?
Chicken pox - Aciclovir
Adenovirus - Cidofovir onyl if IMMUNOCOMPROMISED
Measles - antibiotics only if SUPERINFECTION
What are examples of Helminth infections?
Ascariasis has is causes by an intestinal worm and has 2 phases. What are they?
LUNG MIGRATION: Loefflers syndrome = dry cough, SOB, wheeze, haemoptysis
Albendazole is used to treat what parasitic infection?
A for Albendazole
What helminth infections presents as
1. swimmers itch
2. Katayama fever - reaction when worm enters blood
What are the complications of Schistosomiasis?
Bladder problems --> cancer
What infection is caused by Enchinococcus and produces cysts in LIVER/lungs?
If untreated schistosomias can become chronic. What is the treatment?
Malaria and Crytosporidiosis are examples of what?
Protozoal parasitic infections
What acroynm is used to remember the clincal presentation of malaria?
I - DIC
How would malaria be investigated?
Cryptosporidiosis is contracted by the faecal-oral root like Ascariasis. What symptoms?
Non-spefiic GI: nausea, vomiting, fever, bloating, cramps
Treatment for Cryptosporidiosis?
How are most parasitic infections investigated?
Whch viral infection is characteristised as 3C's + erythematous rash + fever?
When is it infective?
4 days pre-rash --> 4 days post-rash
Which common infection presents as fever + rash + foot/mouth/hand disease, that needs to EXCLUDE MENINGITIS?
Adenovirus is common in children and adults. What are the 3 main symptoms?
Which 2 common viruses present as vomitting and diarrhoea?
List some antibitoics suitable for those with penicillin allergies.
Define the following terms:
-Minimum inhibitory [c]
Bacteristatic = inhibit growth (protein synthesis inhibitors)
Bactericidal = kill bacteria (cell wall agents)
MIC - minimum [antibiotic] visibly inhibiting growth
β-lactam/aminoglycoside to treat Strep Endocarditis is an example of what?
(2 antibiotics given together > sum of individual)
Which component of bacteria cell wall is in both gram +ve/-ve?
Which 2 drugs inhibit cell wall?
Quinolones e.g. Ciprofloxacin, Fluroquinolones, Trimethoprim have a mode of action of what?
DNA synthesis inhibitors
Which antibiotics are protein synthesis inhibitors? (bacteristatic)
Rifampicin is an RNA synthesis inhibitor. T/F?
The 4C's represent COMMON precipitating antibiotics for C.dif. What are they?
ANY ANTIBIOTICS CAN CAUSE C.DIF
Key antibiotics for specific infections...?
Flucloxacillin - S. aureus (not MRSA)
Benzylpenicillin – S.pyogenes
Cephalosporins (avoid in elderly) – Gram-ve bacilli
Metronidazole – anaerobes
Vancomycin – Gram-positives (MRSA)
Meropenem – most clinically-relevant bacteria
Colistin – last option for multi-resistant Gram-negatives
State reasons for combining antibiotics.
1. Increase efficacy
2. Provide adequate broad spectrum
3. Reduce resistance
The anti-virals NRTIs consist of Pyrimidine/ Purine analogues.
Zidovudine and Lamivudine are examples of what?
(Abacavir, Tenofovir for purine analogues)
Nevirapine, Efavirenz are examples of which anti-viral?
What antibiotics is last line for multi-resistant enterococci?