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Flashcards in Core Microbiology Deck (55):
1

THINK SMART THEN FOCUS. For what?

Antibiotic stewardship

2

State the two most comomonly used antibiotic groups.

B-lactams
Glycopeptides

(both cell wall synthesis inhibitors)

3

Name the other antibiotic groups.

Aminoglycosides - Gentamicin

MLS: Macrolides, Lincosomides, Streptogramins

Tetracyclines
Oxalidinones - Linezolid

(All protein synthesis inhibitors)

Quionolines & Fluroquinolones (DNA synthesis inhibtors

4

What drug amongst others is commonly used to treat TB?

Rifampicin

5

List 8 common side effects of antibiotics

Nausea
Vomiting
Diarrhoea
Skin rash
Allergic reaction
C. dificile
FUNGAL INFECTIONS
RESISTANCE

6

How is antibiotic resistance spread?

Resistance genes in TRANSPOSONS via plasmids

7

Are virus' intracellular or extracellular organisms?

Intracellular

- Take over cells and replicate itself then releases

8

Examples of chronic viral infections that are latent.

HSV

CMV

9

Whats the common stem in antiviral names?

"-vir-"

10

What are the 2 drugs used to treat Hep C?

Interferons

Ribavirin

11

State the 2 targets in antifungal drugs.

Ergosterol - cell membrane

B-1,3 Glycan - cell wall

12

There are 5 classes of antifungal drugs. What spectrum are they?

All BROAD SPECTRUM

13

What are the 5 classes of antifungal drugs?

Polyenes

Allylamine (inhibit ergosterol synthesis)

Azoles (inhibit ergosterol synthesis)

Echinocandins (inhibit B-1,3 glucan synthase)

Others

14

Amphotericin B is a polyene antifungal. It is used as lipid-associated AmB. Why?

Reduce nephrotoxicity and allergic reactions


- used IV, systemic fungal infections

15

What drug is an allylamine? What is it used for?

Terbinafine

- dermaphtye infections

16

Azoles consist of what 2 subtypes? Which one is less toxic and therefore given IV/oral?

Imidazoles

Triazoles* - Fluconzole, Itraconazole

17

Clotrimazole (in Canistan) is an example of an Imidazole drug. What type of infections is it used for?

Dermaphyte infections

18

What are the 2 adverse effects of azoles?

Heptaotoxicity

Drug interactions - inhibits CYP450 - increases [drugs]

19

Which antigfunals require therapeutic drug monitoring?

5-FC, Itraconzole

20

What are the man ways a child can present with a viral infection?

Fever + rash

Respiratory symptomes

Diarrhoea/Vomiting

21

The "slapped cheek" appearence is caused by what?

What are the other symptoms?

Parovirus B19

Fever + rash
Arthralgia
Respiratory

22

What is a very common virus that causes bronchiolitis in almost all by 1yr?

Respiratory Syncytial virus (RSV)

23

How are most viral infections in children investigated?

PCR

(Swab)

24

Most viru's in children are self-limiting and managed supportively, rehydrating. However, some viruses require treatment. Which ones are they and their drugs?

Chicken pox - Aciclovir

Adenovirus - Cidofovir onyl if IMMUNOCOMPROMISED

Measles - antibiotics only if SUPERINFECTION

25

What are examples of Helminth infections?

Schistosomiasis

Ascariasis

Hydatid disease

26

Ascariasis has is causes by an intestinal worm and has 2 phases. What are they?

INTESTINAL PHASE

LUNG MIGRATION: Loefflers syndrome = dry cough, SOB, wheeze, haemoptysis

27

Albendazole is used to treat what parasitic infection?

Ascariasis

A for Albendazole

28

What helminth infections presents as
1. swimmers itch
2. Katayama fever - reaction when worm enters blood
3. (Chronic...)

Schistosomiasis

29

What are the complications of Schistosomiasis?

Bladder problems --> cancer

Liver cirrhosis

30

What infection is caused by Enchinococcus and produces cysts in LIVER/lungs?

Hydatid disease

31

If untreated schistosomias can become chronic. What is the treatment?

Praziquantel

32

Malaria and Crytosporidiosis are examples of what?

Protozoal parasitic infections

33

What acroynm is used to remember the clincal presentation of malaria?

FALCIPARUM

Fever
AKI
Low sugar
Confusion, coma
I - DIC
Pulmonary odema
Anameia, abdo
Retinopathy
Metabolic acidosis

34

How would malaria be investigated?

Serology

PCR

35

Cryptosporidiosis is contracted by the faecal-oral root like Ascariasis. What symptoms?

Watery diarrhoea

Non-spefiic GI: nausea, vomiting, fever, bloating, cramps

36

Treatment for Cryptosporidiosis?

Fluids

Nitrazoxanide

37

How are most parasitic infections investigated?

Stool sample

Serology

38

Whch viral infection is characteristised as 3C's + erythematous rash + fever?

When is it infective?

Measles

4 days pre-rash --> 4 days post-rash

39

Which common infection presents as fever + rash + foot/mouth/hand disease, that needs to EXCLUDE MENINGITIS?

Enteroviral infections

40

Adenovirus is common in children and adults. What are the 3 main symptoms?

Mild URTI
Conjunctivitis
Diarrhoea

41

Which 2 common viruses present as vomitting and diarrhoea?

Rotavirus

Norovirus

(PCR, Rehydration)

42

List some antibitoics suitable for those with penicillin allergies.

Erythromycin
Clarithromycin
Vancomycin
Linezolid

43

Define the following terms:
-Bacteristatic
-Bactericidal
-Minimum inhibitory [c]

Bacteristatic = inhibit growth (protein synthesis inhibitors)

Bactericidal = kill bacteria (cell wall agents)

MIC - minimum [antibiotic] visibly inhibiting growth

44

β-lactam/aminoglycoside to treat Strep Endocarditis is an example of what?

Synergism

(2 antibiotics given together > sum of individual)

45

Which component of bacteria cell wall is in both gram +ve/-ve?

Which 2 drugs inhibit cell wall?

Peptidoglycan

B-lactams
Glycopeptides

46

Quinolones e.g. Ciprofloxacin, Fluroquinolones, Trimethoprim have a mode of action of what?

DNA synthesis inhibitors

47

Which antibiotics are protein synthesis inhibitors? (bacteristatic)

Aminoglycosides (G)
MLS
Tetracyclines
Oxazolidinones

48

Rifampicin is an RNA synthesis inhibitor. T/F?

T

49

The 4C's represent COMMON precipitating antibiotics for C.dif. What are they?

Co-amoxiclav
Cephalosporins
Ciprofloxacin
Clindamycin

ANY ANTIBIOTICS CAN CAUSE C.DIF

50

Key antibiotics for specific infections...?

Flucloxacillin - S. aureus (not MRSA)
Benzylpenicillin – S.pyogenes
Cephalosporins (avoid in elderly) – Gram-ve bacilli
Metronidazole – anaerobes
Vancomycin – Gram-positives (MRSA)
Meropenem – most clinically-relevant bacteria
Colistin – last option for multi-resistant Gram-negatives

51

State reasons for combining antibiotics.

1. Increase efficacy
2. Provide adequate broad spectrum
3. Reduce resistance

52

The anti-virals NRTIs consist of Pyrimidine/ Purine analogues.

Zidovudine and Lamivudine are examples of what?

Pyrimidines

(Abacavir, Tenofovir for purine analogues)

53

Nevirapine, Efavirenz are examples of which anti-viral?

NNRTIs

54

What antibiotics is last line for multi-resistant enterococci?

Meropenem

55

Common drug used to treat CMV?

Ganciclovir