Flashcards in CVD Deck (48):
CVD risk factors can be assessed using...?
Framingham Risk score
What is IHD usually caused by?
What does ischaemia in the heart lead to...?
List IHD syndromes.
Acute coronary syndrome
Sudden cardiac death = Arrythmias
What are the 2 classifications of MI?
Acute - full wall
Subendocardial - poorly perfused normally, infarct when hypotensive/angina
State how you would diagnosis an MI.
ECG: ST elevation
What are some of the complications after MI?
Shock (LV failure)
Stroke (mural thrombus)
Dressler's syndrome (weeks/months post)
High BP --> Damage bv --> Damage organs.
What are some of the causes of 2" HTN (5%)
Renal - CKD, renal a stenosis
Endocrine: Conn's, Cushings, Pheochromocytoma, Hyperthyroid
CV: coarctation of aorta
Neurological: Sleep apnoea, increased ICP
What BP is classsified as hypertensive crisis?
BP > 180/120
Pulmonary HTN can cause RV hypertrophy, hepatomegaly, Splenic congestion, peripheral oedema. What conditions can cause it?
Interstitial Lung D
The pathogenesis of LVHF is increased PRESSURE or DYSFUNCTION. What 3 conditons can lead to LVHF?
Symptoms of LVHF?
Blood in sputum
LVHF and Cor pulmonale can lead to what?
is pleural/pericardial effusion seen in LVHF or RVHF? What else is seen?
State 4 complications of both heart failures.
Heart failure cells
70% of all Valvular Heart Disease (VHD) is done to.../
What causes mitral stenosis with the classic fish mouth abnormality?
(autoimmune D after Strep A throat infection)
What does RHD cause in the heart?
Which stenosis is caused by age-related calcification or 2 cusps?
(can develop angina, CHF)
Aortic regurgitation can be caused by?
Aortic root dilations
MVP stands for...? In mitral valve regurgitiation.
How would you diagnosis it?
Mitral Valve prolapse
Which congenital heart defects (CHD) cause a L --> R shunt?
Which CHD cause a R --L shunt
Tetralogy of Fallot
Transposition of the Great vessels
Total anoamlous pulmonary venous conn
In which shunt in CHD do you get cyanosis?
R --> L shunt
Which CHD are due to valvular abnormalities and are obstructive?
Coarctation of aorta
In which CHD is a shunt REQUIRED FOR SURVIVAL?
If PDA + obstructive defect
Transposition of Great vessels
What are the vegetations made of that are in IE?
Organisms + thrombotic debris
How is IE classified?
Which one is less virulent/vague symptoms/ affects defective valve and often seen on wards?
Sub-acute IE* - antibiotics
Strep viridans (mouth), S. aureas (skin) and what other pathogen causes IE via blood?
TEST FOR BOWEL CANCER
Risk factors for IE?
what acronym is used for the presentation of IE?
List 3 causes of Non-IE.
Endocarditis with SLE
What virus commonly causes all kinds of heart infections?
What is the most common type of acute pericarditis?
What are the other types?
There are 3 chronic pericarditis types. What are they?
Is chronic pericarditis inflammatory or adhesive?
Pericarditis is caused by what?
Infection (Coxsackie B, TB)
Post- heart sugery
Immunological: RF, SLE, Dresslers
Myocarditis is often caused by CoxsackieB. How would it present?
Can develop into dilated CM
Sudden cardiac death
What are the 4 types of cardiomyopathies (CM)?
4. Arrythmogenic RV
Which CM is often caused by genetic or alcohol?
Transplant, Ventricular assist
Is hypertophic CM 100% genetic or not?
Restrictive CM shows decreased in ventricular compliance. What are some causes?
Which CM is due to RV dysplasia from disorder of desmosomes?
Which condition presents as facial pain, headache and jaw claudication?
Giant cell arteritis
MEDICAL EMERGENCY - COMPLICATION --> BLINDNESS
How would you diagnose and treat Giant cell arteritis?
What is the most common type of aneurysm?
other types of aneurysm?
Berry (Circle of Wilis)
Mycotic (weakening post subacute IE)