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Flashcards in CVD Deck (48):
1

CVD risk factors can be assessed using...?

Q-risk 2
Score
Framingham Risk score

2

What is IHD usually caused by?

Atheroma

3

What does ischaemia in the heart lead to...?

Myocyte dyfunction/death

4

List IHD syndromes.

Angina pectoris
Acute coronary syndrome
Sudden cardiac death = Arrythmias
Chronic IHD

5

What are the 2 classifications of MI?

Differences?

Acute - full wall

Subendocardial - poorly perfused normally, infarct when hypotensive/angina

6

State how you would diagnosis an MI.

.Troponin

ECG: ST elevation

CK-MB

7

What are some of the complications after MI?

Arrythmias
Shock (LV failure)
Stroke (mural thrombus)
Dressler's syndrome (weeks/months post)

8

High BP --> Damage bv --> Damage organs.

What are some of the causes of 2" HTN (5%)

Renal - CKD, renal a stenosis
Endocrine: Conn's, Cushings, Pheochromocytoma, Hyperthyroid

CV: coarctation of aorta
Neurological: Sleep apnoea, increased ICP

9

What BP is classsified as hypertensive crisis?

BP > 180/120

URGENT TREATMENT

10

Pulmonary HTN can cause RV hypertrophy, hepatomegaly, Splenic congestion, peripheral oedema. What conditions can cause it?

COPD
Asthma
Interstitial Lung D
PE

11

The pathogenesis of LVHF is increased PRESSURE or DYSFUNCTION. What 3 conditons can lead to LVHF?

HTN
Valvular HD
MI

12

Symptoms of LVHF?

Pulmonary oedema
Orthopnoea
PND
Cyanosis
Blood in sputum
SOB

13

LVHF and Cor pulmonale can lead to what?

RVHF

14

is pleural/pericardial effusion seen in LVHF or RVHF? What else is seen?

RVHF

Hepatomegaly
Splenomegaly
Peripheral oedema

15

State 4 complications of both heart failures.

Chamber dilation
Hypertrophy
Cardiomegaly
Heart failure cells

16

70% of all Valvular Heart Disease (VHD) is done to.../

Aortic/mitral stenosis

17

What causes mitral stenosis with the classic fish mouth abnormality?

RHD

(autoimmune D after Strep A throat infection)

18

What does RHD cause in the heart?

PANCARDITIS

19

Which stenosis is caused by age-related calcification or 2 cusps?

Aortic stenosis

(can develop angina, CHF)

20

Aortic regurgitation can be caused by?

RHD
Endocarditis
Aortic root dilations

21

MVP stands for...? In mitral valve regurgitiation.

How would you diagnosis it?

Mitral Valve prolapse

ECHO

22

Which congenital heart defects (CHD) cause a L --> R shunt?

consequence?

VSD
ASD
AVSD
PDA

Pulmonary HTN

23

Which CHD cause a R --L shunt

Tetralogy of Fallot
Transposition of the Great vessels
Truncus arteriosus
Total anoamlous pulmonary venous conn
Tricuspid atresia

24

In which shunt in CHD do you get cyanosis?

R --> L shunt

25

Which CHD are due to valvular abnormalities and are obstructive?

Coarctation of aorta
Aortic stenosis
Pulmonary Stenosis

26

In which CHD is a shunt REQUIRED FOR SURVIVAL?

If PDA + obstructive defect
Transposition of Great vessels
Tricuspid atresia
Total anomalous...

27

What are the vegetations made of that are in IE?

Organisms + thrombotic debris

28

How is IE classified?

Which one is less virulent/vague symptoms/ affects defective valve and often seen on wards?

Acute IE

Sub-acute IE* - antibiotics

29

Strep viridans (mouth), S. aureas (skin) and what other pathogen causes IE via blood?

S. Bovis

TEST FOR BOWEL CANCER

30

Risk factors for IE?

Dental work
Cardiac/Valvular ab
IVDU
Prolonged catheter
Bowel cancer

31

what acronym is used for the presentation of IE?

FROM JANE

32

List 3 causes of Non-IE.

NBTE
Endocarditis with SLE
RF

33

What virus commonly causes all kinds of heart infections?

Coxsackie B

34

What is the most common type of acute pericarditis?

What are the other types?

Serofibrinous/Fibrinous

Serous
Purulent
Haemorrhagic
Caseous

35

There are 3 chronic pericarditis types. What are they?

Adhesive
Adhesive Mediastinopericarditis
Restricitive

36

Is chronic pericarditis inflammatory or adhesive?

Adhesive

37

Pericarditis is caused by what?

Infection (Coxsackie B, TB)
Post- heart sugery
Immunological: RF, SLE, Dresslers
Neoplasm/Radiation

38

Myocarditis is often caused by CoxsackieB. How would it present?

Can develop into dilated CM

Asymptomatic
Heart failure
Arrthymias
Sudden cardiac death

39

What are the 4 types of cardiomyopathies (CM)?

1. Dilated
2. Hypertrophic
3. Restrictive
4. Arrythmogenic RV

40

Which CM is often caused by genetic or alcohol?

Treatment?

Dilate CM

Transplant, Ventricular assist

41

Is hypertophic CM 100% genetic or not?

Treatment?

100% genetic

Transplant, B-blockers

42

Restrictive CM shows decreased in ventricular compliance. What are some causes?

Amyloidosis
Sarcoidosis
Mets
idiopathic

43

Which CM is due to RV dysplasia from disorder of desmosomes?

Arrythmogenic RV

Athletes

44

Which condition presents as facial pain, headache and jaw claudication?

Giant cell arteritis

MEDICAL EMERGENCY - COMPLICATION --> BLINDNESS

45

How would you diagnose and treat Giant cell arteritis?

Biopsy

Corticosteroids

46

What is the most common type of aneurysm?

diagnosis?

Atherosclerotic (AAA)

USS

47

other types of aneurysm?

Dissecting (thoracic)
Berry (Circle of Wilis)
Microaneurysms (brain)
False
Syphilic
Mycotic (weakening post subacute IE)

48

What is the term for RVHF due to lung disease?

Cor Pulmonale