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Flashcards in Correlation Boxes Deck (48):
1

What disease is indicated by elevated levels of alkaline phosphatase in the blood?

Bone disease

2

What disease is indicated by elevated levels of sorbitol dehydrogenase or lactate dehydrogenase (LDH-5) in the blood?

Obstructive liver disease

3

What disease is indicated by elevated levels of acid phosphatase in the blood?

Prostatic cancer

4

What disease is indicated by elevated levels of amylase in the blood?

Acute pancreatitis

5

What disease is indicated by elevated levels of aldolase and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in the blood?

Muscular dystrophy

6

What disease is indicated by elevated levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) or CK-MM isoform of creatine kinase in the blood?

Liver disorder

7

Why do sulfa drugs only affect bacteria?

Because humans acquire folate as a vitamin from their diet

8

________ effect = aerobic conditions suppressing glycolysis

Pasteur

9

Many cancers exhibit increased rates of glycolysis even in presence of O2. This is know as the ________ effect

Warburg

10

What sugar is a 4C sugar, an artificial sweetener, is hard to metabolize giving little energy and doesnt cause tooth decay?

Erythritol

11

What sugar s a 5C sugar, a natural sweetener, low glycemic index, and causes no tooth decay?

Xylitol

12

What sugar is a sugar alcohol used for energy storage by microorganisms and plants, used to treat trauma and kidney failure, can make blood brain barrier permeable to drugs, and can be used to treat cystic fibrosis when inhaled?

Mannitol

13

What sugar is used as a sweetener in chewing gum, tooth paste and mouthwash and can be used as a laxative?

Sorbitol

14

Increased cholesterol in bile with little bile salt leads to what?

Gallstones

15

When cholesterol levels are too high, what type of vitamins can become deficient?

Fat-soluble

16

The oxidizing environment for formation of disulfide bonds does not exist where and why>

Cytoplasm -> because of the high concentration of glutathione.

- Occurs in the RER

17

A ________ nitrogen balance means nitrogen intake exceeds nitrogen excretion. This coincides with situations n which protein is being synthesized such as in growing children, pregnant women, and patients recovering from surgery or traumatic injury.

Positive

18

A _________ nitrogen balance means nitrogen loss exceeds nitrogen intake and coincides with situations in which issue is being degraded such as in patients suffering from malnutrition or starvation, third degree burns, and cachexia (muscle wasting) due to terminal cancer

Negative

19

What does the rate at which a reaction proceeds depend on?

The enzyme that catalyzes the reaction

20

What are metalloenzymes inhibited by?

Chelating agents -> they bind to and remove the metals from their metalloenzymes

Ex. EDTA

21

What is the treatment for lead poisoning?

Ca-EDTA -> Pb has a higher affinity for EDTA than calcium so it displaces Ca2+ from EDTA creating Pb-EDTA which is excreted in the urine

22

What condition is a rare autosomal condition that is caused by mutation in GLUT2 transporter located in hepatocytes, pancreatic beta cells, enterocytes and renal tubular cells and leads to impaired transport of glucose, galactose and fructose?

Fanconi-Bickel Syndrome

- Treatment = vitamin D and phosphate to treat rickets and indigestion of uncooked corn starch to provide a sustained supply of glucose

23

What disease is characterized by defective GlcNAc-PT gene, where instead of the M6P proteins being targeted to the lysosomes they are secreted and can be detected in circulation?

Inclusion Cell (I-cell) disease

24

What disease is characterized by a cancer of the blood and bone marrow marked by a buildup of immature white blood cells and is linked with the presence of PML-RARgamma, where RML-RARgamma acts to repress the transcription of certain genes and prevent cell differentiation resulting in the accumulation of immature promyelocytes?

Acute promyelocytic leukemia

25

What can an overdose of acetominophen deplete?

GSH -> N-acetylcysteine is administered to restore

26

_________ is used to produce thyroxine (T4) and Triiodothyroine (T3)

Thyroglobulin

27

Is T3 or T4 more potent?

T3 -> but T3 has a shorter half life in circulation

28

What type of diet increases urea production?

High protein diet

29

In what 4 locations does PPP occur?

Erythrocytes, testes, mammary glands and adrenal cortex

30

What organ is the principle site for nucleotide synthesis?

Liver

31

Nucleosides appear in important biomolecules such as adenosine in vitamin ______

B12

32

What enzyme is the drug target for immunosuppressant mycophenolic acid, which disrupts DNA replication in B and T cells depriving those cells of adequate supplies of GMP and therefore GTP?

IMP dehydrogenase

- Disruption of GMP synthesis is a useful strategy in drugs preventing graft rejection

33

What are alcoholics especially prone to?

Lactic acidosis

34

Compare and contrast the complete oxidation of one glucose molecule versus palmitate

Glucose = 36-38 ATP
Palmitate = 129 ATP

35

What poison looks like lipoic acid's 2 -SH groups and binds to thiol groups irreversibly, limiting availability of lipoic acid which will effect PDH and all the enzymes that use lipoic acid as a coenzyme?

Arsenite

- Arsenite is a slow poison because it takes time for it to affect enough enzymes to become lethal. It builds up in the body and can be detected in the hair

36

_______ = Thiamine (Vitamin B1) deficiency

Beriberi

37

What does dry beriberi affect?

Cardiovascular function

- This is diagnosed by measuring blood thiamine levels

38

What is the treatment for Beriberi?

Thiamine supplementation

39

What is Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome?

Thiamine deficiency in chronic alcoholics

- This is a type of Beriberi

40

What is the mechanism of rat poison?

Fluoroacetate + CoA -> Fluoroacetyl CoA + OAA -> Fluorocitrate -> Fluorocitrate acts as a competitive inhibitor of aconitase which leads to the accumulation of citrate which inhibits citrate synthase

- Fluorocitrate is also an allosteric inhibitor of PFK-1 and acts to inhibit glycolysis

41

What enzyme in TCA does rat poison affect>

Aconitase

42

How does Rotenone work?

Inhibits Complex I of ETC by preventing electron transfer from Fe-S centers to CoQ

43

How can Rotenone be overcome?

Vitamin K3 -> allows electrons to bypass site of rotenone blockade

44

How does cyanide poisoning affect ETC?

CN binds to Fe3+ of cyt-a3 component of complex IV and prevents O2 reduction

45

CO acts as what type of inhibitor?

Competitive inhibitor (raises Km)

46

How does an aspirin overdose affect ETC?

At increased levels, salicylate uncoupled Ox-Phos by disrupting the proton gradient across inner mito membrane and causes dissipation of heat

- This also stimulates respiratory center in the brain and causes hyperventilation

47

What happens if you dont have aldolase B?

Fructose and fuctose-1-P accumulate in the liver

48

Explain how sorbitol can lead to cataracts

Sorbitol freely crosses the lens and retinal, where sorbitol dehydrogenase is unable to act, so sorbitol accumulates which draws in water and puts pressure on the eye