Flashcards in Correlation Boxes Deck (48):
What disease is indicated by elevated levels of alkaline phosphatase in the blood?
What disease is indicated by elevated levels of sorbitol dehydrogenase or lactate dehydrogenase (LDH-5) in the blood?
Obstructive liver disease
What disease is indicated by elevated levels of acid phosphatase in the blood?
What disease is indicated by elevated levels of amylase in the blood?
What disease is indicated by elevated levels of aldolase and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in the blood?
What disease is indicated by elevated levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) or CK-MM isoform of creatine kinase in the blood?
Why do sulfa drugs only affect bacteria?
Because humans acquire folate as a vitamin from their diet
________ effect = aerobic conditions suppressing glycolysis
Many cancers exhibit increased rates of glycolysis even in presence of O2. This is know as the ________ effect
What sugar is a 4C sugar, an artificial sweetener, is hard to metabolize giving little energy and doesnt cause tooth decay?
What sugar s a 5C sugar, a natural sweetener, low glycemic index, and causes no tooth decay?
What sugar is a sugar alcohol used for energy storage by microorganisms and plants, used to treat trauma and kidney failure, can make blood brain barrier permeable to drugs, and can be used to treat cystic fibrosis when inhaled?
What sugar is used as a sweetener in chewing gum, tooth paste and mouthwash and can be used as a laxative?
Increased cholesterol in bile with little bile salt leads to what?
When cholesterol levels are too high, what type of vitamins can become deficient?
The oxidizing environment for formation of disulfide bonds does not exist where and why>
Cytoplasm -> because of the high concentration of glutathione.
- Occurs in the RER
A ________ nitrogen balance means nitrogen intake exceeds nitrogen excretion. This coincides with situations n which protein is being synthesized such as in growing children, pregnant women, and patients recovering from surgery or traumatic injury.
A _________ nitrogen balance means nitrogen loss exceeds nitrogen intake and coincides with situations in which issue is being degraded such as in patients suffering from malnutrition or starvation, third degree burns, and cachexia (muscle wasting) due to terminal cancer
What does the rate at which a reaction proceeds depend on?
The enzyme that catalyzes the reaction
What are metalloenzymes inhibited by?
Chelating agents -> they bind to and remove the metals from their metalloenzymes
What is the treatment for lead poisoning?
Ca-EDTA -> Pb has a higher affinity for EDTA than calcium so it displaces Ca2+ from EDTA creating Pb-EDTA which is excreted in the urine
What condition is a rare autosomal condition that is caused by mutation in GLUT2 transporter located in hepatocytes, pancreatic beta cells, enterocytes and renal tubular cells and leads to impaired transport of glucose, galactose and fructose?
- Treatment = vitamin D and phosphate to treat rickets and indigestion of uncooked corn starch to provide a sustained supply of glucose
What disease is characterized by defective GlcNAc-PT gene, where instead of the M6P proteins being targeted to the lysosomes they are secreted and can be detected in circulation?
Inclusion Cell (I-cell) disease
What disease is characterized by a cancer of the blood and bone marrow marked by a buildup of immature white blood cells and is linked with the presence of PML-RARgamma, where RML-RARgamma acts to repress the transcription of certain genes and prevent cell differentiation resulting in the accumulation of immature promyelocytes?
Acute promyelocytic leukemia
What can an overdose of acetominophen deplete?
GSH -> N-acetylcysteine is administered to restore
_________ is used to produce thyroxine (T4) and Triiodothyroine (T3)
Is T3 or T4 more potent?
T3 -> but T3 has a shorter half life in circulation
What type of diet increases urea production?
High protein diet
In what 4 locations does PPP occur?
Erythrocytes, testes, mammary glands and adrenal cortex
What organ is the principle site for nucleotide synthesis?
Nucleosides appear in important biomolecules such as adenosine in vitamin ______
What enzyme is the drug target for immunosuppressant mycophenolic acid, which disrupts DNA replication in B and T cells depriving those cells of adequate supplies of GMP and therefore GTP?
- Disruption of GMP synthesis is a useful strategy in drugs preventing graft rejection
What are alcoholics especially prone to?
Compare and contrast the complete oxidation of one glucose molecule versus palmitate
Glucose = 36-38 ATP
Palmitate = 129 ATP
What poison looks like lipoic acid's 2 -SH groups and binds to thiol groups irreversibly, limiting availability of lipoic acid which will effect PDH and all the enzymes that use lipoic acid as a coenzyme?
- Arsenite is a slow poison because it takes time for it to affect enough enzymes to become lethal. It builds up in the body and can be detected in the hair
_______ = Thiamine (Vitamin B1) deficiency
What does dry beriberi affect?
- This is diagnosed by measuring blood thiamine levels
What is the treatment for Beriberi?
What is Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome?
Thiamine deficiency in chronic alcoholics
- This is a type of Beriberi
What is the mechanism of rat poison?
Fluoroacetate + CoA -> Fluoroacetyl CoA + OAA -> Fluorocitrate -> Fluorocitrate acts as a competitive inhibitor of aconitase which leads to the accumulation of citrate which inhibits citrate synthase
- Fluorocitrate is also an allosteric inhibitor of PFK-1 and acts to inhibit glycolysis
What enzyme in TCA does rat poison affect>
How does Rotenone work?
Inhibits Complex I of ETC by preventing electron transfer from Fe-S centers to CoQ
How can Rotenone be overcome?
Vitamin K3 -> allows electrons to bypass site of rotenone blockade
How does cyanide poisoning affect ETC?
CN binds to Fe3+ of cyt-a3 component of complex IV and prevents O2 reduction
CO acts as what type of inhibitor?
Competitive inhibitor (raises Km)
How does an aspirin overdose affect ETC?
At increased levels, salicylate uncoupled Ox-Phos by disrupting the proton gradient across inner mito membrane and causes dissipation of heat
- This also stimulates respiratory center in the brain and causes hyperventilation
What happens if you dont have aldolase B?
Fructose and fuctose-1-P accumulate in the liver