Lecture 1: Fund Of Biochem Rxns Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 1: Fund Of Biochem Rxns Deck (66):
1

________ is an enzyme that balances molecules that affect the pH of blood

Carbonic Anhydrase

2

What 2 molecules are directly affected by carbonic anhydrase in the blood buffer equation?

Carbonate and carbon dioxide

3

Is the blood buffer reaction driven by mass action or is it a coupled reaction?

Mass action

4

______________ (enzyme class) transfer electrons from a donor to an acceptor

Oxidoreductases

- Donor = reducing agent
- Acceptor = oxidizing agent

5

________________ (enzyme class) transfer a functional group between molecules

Transferases

- Ex. Of functional groups = amino, phosphate

6

_____________ (enzyme class) rearrange molecules

Isomerases

7

____________ (enzyme class) add or remove atoms to or from a double bond

Lyases

8

_____________ (enzyme class) from bonds with the hydrolysis of ATP

Ligases

9

_______________ (enzyme class) cleave bonds via the addition of water

Hydrolases

10

What is a coupled reaction?

An endergonic reaction coupled to an exergonic reaction so the first can occur

11

Lactate dehydrogenase is in what enzyme class?

Oxidoreductases

12

Nucleoside monophosphate is in what enzyme class?

Transferases

13

Chymotrypsn is in what enzyme class?

Hydrolases

14

Fumarase is in what enzyme class?

Lyases

15

Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase is in what enzyme class?

Ligases

16

____________ are enzymes that have the same functions but come from different genes

Isozymes

- Some other enzymes are like this such as troponin in cardiomyocytes

17

What does the y-intercept on a line weaver burk plot represent?

1/Vmax

18

What does the slope of a lineweaver burk plot represent?

Km/max

19

What does the x-intercept on a lineweaver burk plot represent?

-1/Km

20

Does a higher or lower Km mean the enzyme is speeding up somehow?

Lower

21

Does a higher or lower Km mean the enzyme function is slowing down?

Higher

22

Chymotrypsin is an example of what type of inhibitor?

Irreversible

23

What happens to Vmax and Km during irreversible inhibition?

Vmax decreases
Km unchanged

24

What happens to Vmax and Km during competitive inhibition?

Vmax unchanged
Km increased

25

WHat happens to Vmax and Km in uncompetitive inhibiton?

Both decrease

26

What does an uncompetitive inhibitor bind to?

Enzyme-substrate complex only

27

What happens to the Vmax and Km during noncompetitive inhibition

Vmax decreases
Km is unchanged

28

What do noncompetitive inhibitors bind to?

Free and substrate-bound enzyme

29

What 3 things does the active site control for substrate binding?

Shape, pH and polarity

30

What is the optimal pH for pepsin and trypsin?

Pepsin = 2
Trypsin = 8

31

What is an apoenzyme?

Enzyme without cofactor

32

What is a haloenzyme?

Cofactor bound + cofactor

33

Chymotrypsin is in what enzyme class?

Hydrolases

34

NMP kinase is in what enzyme class?

Transferases

35

In a redox reaction is the reducing agent/reductant the donor or acceptor?

Donor

36

In a redox reaction is an oxidizing agent/oxidant a donor or acceptor?

Acceptor

37

BOth beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate are ketone bodies, which are produced by the liver under conditions of extended fasting. The two ketone bodies are easily intervoncerted depending upon the conditions present within the mito where they are synthesized. The conversion of beta-hydroxybutyrate to acetoacetate occurs by what type of reaction?

A) oxidation

38

What 2 monomers make up lactose?

Glucose and galactose

39

What 2 monomers make up sucrose?

Glucose and fructose

40

____________ fats have more H's, are more caloric and unhealthy

Saturated

41

______________ fats have more double bonds, are hard to digest

Unsaturated fatty acids

42

_____________ (5 carbon unit) makes steroids

Isoprene

** steroids are cholesterol and cholesterol is made up of FAs

43

Name the nonpolar amino acids

Ala, Gly, Ile, Leu, Met, Phe, Pro, Trp

44

Name the uncharged polar AAs

Asn, Cys, Gln, Ser, Thr

45

Name the negative/acidic polar AAs

Asp, Glu

46

Name the positive/basic polar AAs

Arg, His

47

What are zwitterions?

AAs that have + and - charges at neutral pH

48

A 31 year old woman, G1, P0 presents to her doc with severe acne and is treated with isotretinoin. She later realizes she was 4 week pregnant. When the baby is born, he has a cleft palate and cardiac abnormalities. The drug used to treat this woman is derived from what?
A) Folic acid
B) Riboflavin
C) Retinol
D) 25-hydroxycholecalciferol
E) Thiamine

C) Retinol

49

Excess vitamin ________ causes hepatic toxicity and arthralgias

Vitamin A

50

Excess vitamin ______ causes hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria and patients appear dazed, loss of appetite and possible sarcoidosis

Vitamin D

51

An environmentalist attempted to live in a desolate forest for 6 months, but had to cut his experiment short when he bagan to suffer from bleeding gums, some teeth falling out, and red spots on his thighs and legs. This individual is suffering from an inability to properly synthesize which one of the following proteins?
A) Myoglobin
B) Hemoglobin
C) Collagen
D) Insulin
E) Fibrilln

C) Collagen

52

Vitamin ______ deficiency is characterized by rickets, osteomalacia, and hypocalcemic tetany due to hypocalcemia

Vitamin D

53

What is osteomalacia?

The adult form of rickets

54

Vitamin ______ deficiency is characterized by nyctalopia, xerosis cutis, keratomalacia, bitot spots on conjunctive and xerophthalmia

A

55

What is nyctalopia?

Night blindness

56

What is xerosis cutis?

Dry, scaly skin

57

WHat is keratomalacia?

Corneal degeneration

58

WHat is xerophthalmia?

Dry eyes

59

Scurvy is characterized by a deficiency of what vitamin?

Vitamin C

60

What is vitamin C an important Cofactor and without it would cause scurvy?

Lysyl hydroxylase

61

What is lysyl hydroxylase responsible for?

Collagen assembly

62

Petechiae, ecchymoses, spongy/bleeding gums and poor wound healing are all symptoms of what disease?

Scurvy

63

A 36 year old male has a malignant lymphoma involving lymph nodes in the para-aortic region and is treated with a chemotherapeutic agent which results in the loss of individual neoplasticism cells through fragmentation of individual cell nuclei and cytoplasm. This process is known as apoptosis. What in the cell membrane will move to the outer leaflet to signal apoptosis in the cell?

Phosphatidylserine

64

A 3 year old girl is brought to the physician because her parents have observed progressive, severe neurological deterioration (mental retardation, seizures, ataxia). Physical examination shows marked hepatosplenomegaly. Deficiency of what enzyme is responsible for the patient's presentation?

Acid sphingomyelinase

(Neimann-pick disease)

65

What disease is characterized by elevated cholesterol in RBC membrane leading to decreased fluidity so RBC lyse in the spleen

Spur cell anemia = hemolytic anemia

66

A 40 year old man arrived to the ER complaining of chest pain, shortness of breath and swelling of the legs. Echocardiography results showed evidence of CHF. The attending physician immediately started him on Digoxin. Which ion transporter/channel is the primary target of this drug?

Sodium/potassium ATPase

- This secondarily effects the sodium/calcium exchanger