Flashcards in Lecture 1: Fund Of Biochem Rxns Deck (66):
________ is an enzyme that balances molecules that affect the pH of blood
What 2 molecules are directly affected by carbonic anhydrase in the blood buffer equation?
Carbonate and carbon dioxide
Is the blood buffer reaction driven by mass action or is it a coupled reaction?
______________ (enzyme class) transfer electrons from a donor to an acceptor
- Donor = reducing agent
- Acceptor = oxidizing agent
________________ (enzyme class) transfer a functional group between molecules
- Ex. Of functional groups = amino, phosphate
_____________ (enzyme class) rearrange molecules
____________ (enzyme class) add or remove atoms to or from a double bond
_____________ (enzyme class) from bonds with the hydrolysis of ATP
_______________ (enzyme class) cleave bonds via the addition of water
What is a coupled reaction?
An endergonic reaction coupled to an exergonic reaction so the first can occur
Lactate dehydrogenase is in what enzyme class?
Nucleoside monophosphate is in what enzyme class?
Chymotrypsn is in what enzyme class?
Fumarase is in what enzyme class?
Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase is in what enzyme class?
____________ are enzymes that have the same functions but come from different genes
- Some other enzymes are like this such as troponin in cardiomyocytes
What does the y-intercept on a line weaver burk plot represent?
What does the slope of a lineweaver burk plot represent?
What does the x-intercept on a lineweaver burk plot represent?
Does a higher or lower Km mean the enzyme is speeding up somehow?
Does a higher or lower Km mean the enzyme function is slowing down?
Chymotrypsin is an example of what type of inhibitor?
What happens to Vmax and Km during irreversible inhibition?
What happens to Vmax and Km during competitive inhibition?
WHat happens to Vmax and Km in uncompetitive inhibiton?
What does an uncompetitive inhibitor bind to?
Enzyme-substrate complex only
What happens to the Vmax and Km during noncompetitive inhibition
Km is unchanged
What do noncompetitive inhibitors bind to?
Free and substrate-bound enzyme
What 3 things does the active site control for substrate binding?
Shape, pH and polarity
What is the optimal pH for pepsin and trypsin?
Pepsin = 2
Trypsin = 8
What is an apoenzyme?
Enzyme without cofactor
What is a haloenzyme?
Cofactor bound + cofactor
Chymotrypsin is in what enzyme class?
NMP kinase is in what enzyme class?
In a redox reaction is the reducing agent/reductant the donor or acceptor?
In a redox reaction is an oxidizing agent/oxidant a donor or acceptor?
BOth beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate are ketone bodies, which are produced by the liver under conditions of extended fasting. The two ketone bodies are easily intervoncerted depending upon the conditions present within the mito where they are synthesized. The conversion of beta-hydroxybutyrate to acetoacetate occurs by what type of reaction?
What 2 monomers make up lactose?
Glucose and galactose
What 2 monomers make up sucrose?
Glucose and fructose
____________ fats have more H's, are more caloric and unhealthy
______________ fats have more double bonds, are hard to digest
Unsaturated fatty acids
_____________ (5 carbon unit) makes steroids
** steroids are cholesterol and cholesterol is made up of FAs
Name the nonpolar amino acids
Ala, Gly, Ile, Leu, Met, Phe, Pro, Trp
Name the uncharged polar AAs
Asn, Cys, Gln, Ser, Thr
Name the negative/acidic polar AAs
Name the positive/basic polar AAs
What are zwitterions?
AAs that have + and - charges at neutral pH
A 31 year old woman, G1, P0 presents to her doc with severe acne and is treated with isotretinoin. She later realizes she was 4 week pregnant. When the baby is born, he has a cleft palate and cardiac abnormalities. The drug used to treat this woman is derived from what?
A) Folic acid
Excess vitamin ________ causes hepatic toxicity and arthralgias
Excess vitamin ______ causes hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria and patients appear dazed, loss of appetite and possible sarcoidosis
An environmentalist attempted to live in a desolate forest for 6 months, but had to cut his experiment short when he bagan to suffer from bleeding gums, some teeth falling out, and red spots on his thighs and legs. This individual is suffering from an inability to properly synthesize which one of the following proteins?
Vitamin ______ deficiency is characterized by rickets, osteomalacia, and hypocalcemic tetany due to hypocalcemia
What is osteomalacia?
The adult form of rickets
Vitamin ______ deficiency is characterized by nyctalopia, xerosis cutis, keratomalacia, bitot spots on conjunctive and xerophthalmia
What is nyctalopia?
What is xerosis cutis?
Dry, scaly skin
WHat is keratomalacia?
WHat is xerophthalmia?
Scurvy is characterized by a deficiency of what vitamin?
What is vitamin C an important Cofactor and without it would cause scurvy?
What is lysyl hydroxylase responsible for?
Petechiae, ecchymoses, spongy/bleeding gums and poor wound healing are all symptoms of what disease?
A 36 year old male has a malignant lymphoma involving lymph nodes in the para-aortic region and is treated with a chemotherapeutic agent which results in the loss of individual neoplasticism cells through fragmentation of individual cell nuclei and cytoplasm. This process is known as apoptosis. What in the cell membrane will move to the outer leaflet to signal apoptosis in the cell?
A 3 year old girl is brought to the physician because her parents have observed progressive, severe neurological deterioration (mental retardation, seizures, ataxia). Physical examination shows marked hepatosplenomegaly. Deficiency of what enzyme is responsible for the patient's presentation?
What disease is characterized by elevated cholesterol in RBC membrane leading to decreased fluidity so RBC lyse in the spleen
Spur cell anemia = hemolytic anemia