Flashcards in COSC 7311 Learning Unit 5 : Global Communication Politics and Propaganda Deck (25):
Discuss , using practical examples, the three domains of global communication politics . (9marks)
*Telecommunication : International Telegraphy Union founded in 1868 . Proposed a reduced telegraphy tariff in order to improve international telegraph conditions and improve national safety . (example : International Telegraphy Union)
*Intellectual property : Aims to protect original work from reproduction until 50 years after the death of the creator . Also looks to promote arts/science/literature as well as encourage dissemination of artistic works .
*Mass media : During the uprising of mass media as we know it today , there was much discussion about its positives and negatives . +ve's = improved cultural understanding for all nations about all other nations.
-ve's/concerns : possible use of media for obscene material , propaganda , diplomacy etc .
Critically discuss the changes in global communication politics (8 marks)
*Previous 100 years of policy meant to co-ordinate national policy that were shaped independantly by nations . Today , it determines the spaces in which countries can determine policy .
*There has been a shift from political discourse to economic discourse in the political communications space . Proof is found in the growing focus on intellectual property and protection for investors and producers .
*The power of the rich in politics is becoming more and more clear , with the wealthy dictating global policy the world over . Likewise with transnational corporations , policy making becomes business rather than politics based .
Explain the terms "privatisation" and " liberalisation" in terms of telecommunication using South African examples . (4 marks)
*Privatisation =Transfer of SOE's and other assets into private owner ship
*Liberalisation = Opening of market to competiton .
The two terms clash with one another as one aims to reduce monopoly whilst the other wants it to grow .
Evaluate differing views on regulating media concentration(6-8 marks)
* Pro-regulation position : Concertraion in the market will kill diversity
*Pro cartel measures lead to stronger companies that can better protect info freedom .Anti cartel measures promote competiton diversity .
*Mergers aren't always successful without weighing of assets . Top management could be bogged down by the interests of small stakeholders .
*Oligopolisation in the info industry could undermine rights to freedom and expression. Which is done via restricting the channels via which citizens can express opinions .
List the key issues in global communication politics that the neoliberal and humanitarian agendas differ on . 8 marks
Access , Knowledge , Global advertising , Privacy , Intellelectual property rights , Trade in culture , Concentration , The Commons
How does the neoliberal and humanitarian agenda differ on the issue of access ? 4 marks
Neo : People are seen as consumers , thus they must be given access to communication infrastructure so they intergrate into global consumer society .
Humanitarian : People need to be literate so that communication information can be used to increase their democratic participation .
How does the neoliberal and humanitarian agenda differ on the issue of knowledge 4 marks
Neo: Knowledge is a commodity that must be privately owned and protected .
Humanitarian : Knowledge is a public entity that must be kept free .
How does the neoliberal and humanitarian agenda differ on the issue of global advertising 5 marks
Neo : Increased interest in the expansion of global advertising , meaning an increased space in media , new arget group, incrased sponsorships and place to advertise .
Humanitarian : Concerned about the eco concerns around increased consumerism as well as gap between those who can shop worldwide and those who can't . Agenda also seeks to defend ublic space against exploitation .
How does the neoliberal and humanitarian agenda differ on the issue of Privacy ? 4 marks
Neo : Increased interest in data mining i.e. the systemic collection and storage of data about individuals for marketing purposes .
Humanitarian : Interest is to protect peoples privacy and make them critical of advertising .
How does the neoliberal and humanitarian agenda differ on the issue of intellectual property rights? 6 marks
Neo : Aims to protect trade based system that protects IPR which enables corporations to exploit these rights . IPR owners also want to extend the protection period for materials . bought under this threat .
Humanitarian : Worried that system allows for the theft of genetic material fro the poor to serve private interests . Aims to protect communal resources from exploitation .
How does the neoliberal and humanitarian agenda differ on the issue of TradeIn Culture ? 4 marks
Neo : Want to apply international trade law to the inport and export of cultural products . Countries will then be unable to restrict cultura imports as part of national trade policy .
Humanitarian : Aim to exempt cultures from trade provisons , and allow for countries to maintain autonomy and free public space .
How does the neoliberal and humanitarian agenda differ on the issue of concentration ? 4 marks
Neo : Aim to strengthen ties with business partners to increase hold onn the world market . Want to create a regulation vacuum
Humanitarian : Concerned that the global merger activity of today hurts consumers and professionals by lowering diversity and autonomy .
How does the neoliberal and humanitarian agenda differ on the issue of The Commons ? 4 marks .
Neo : Wants to privately exploit the commons such as airwaves and promotes their auction to private bidders .
Humanitarian : Wants to retain public property so that heritage and accountability can remain secure .
Discuss propaganda and its origins within the context of global communication . 4 marks
*Originated as attempt by 17th century church to influence people to join its ranks , and then wasn't specfically associated with the media .
* In the 20th century , US was concerned about Europe's potential use of propaganda to influence US citizens . They thus rationalized it by arguing it helped maintain a democratic society . Done via motion pictures and radio .
Examine the impact of propaganda research on the use of propaganda . 6 marks-ish
*Propaganda research started close to the end of WW1
*Both one-sided and two-sided messages were repeateadly tested . Two sided more effective when user use a competitetors brand , espcially when repeated . Also effective when target is more educated.
*Several theories also came about : Hypodermic needle theory (media so poweful that one exposure to message is enough) . Also suggested by Gerber and Choamsky that mass media is designed to distract people from important political issues .
List the seven propaganda devices within the context of global communication . 7 marks
Critically discuss Name Calling with example 4 marks
*Involves labelling a project favourably or unfavourably . This is done to discourage a deeper look into that topic//issue . Leads to overemotional response without examiining the facts . eg Mud slinging in politics (Zuma to Maimane etc)
Critically discuss Glittering generality with example 4 marks
*A vague association of a postive term or phrase to an issue/topic . Key is to link vague words with high morals . Aims to increase faith and respect in the listener . eg Obama " Hope. Action . Change"
Critically discuss Image Transfer with example 2 marks
*Transfer of positive image from well known figure to the person doing the transferrance . Eg Mandela to Zuma
Critically discuss Testimonial with example 2 maks
* When a postive or negatively knwon figure endorses a person/product/program eg Kendall Jenner and Pepsi
Critically discuss Plain Folks with example 2 marks
* Communicator aims to sow themselves as a normal person to boost credibility . eg Zuma doing food delivery .
Critically discuss Card Stacking with example 3 marks
*A selction of olnly postive or negative info to influence attitud or opiion one specific direction . eg Burger king whopper ad
Critically discuss Bandwagon approach with example 2marks
*Aims to win approval/faith by saying "everyone else is doing it " eg US saying everyone is fighting a war on terror .
Critically analyse the use of propaganda as form of terrorism with reference to current examples . 7 marks .
* Modern terrorism is usually carried out by non state entities aiming to disrupt and reverse state and corporate operations
*Not only limited to the developed world .
*Alienated groups sometimes feel that violence is the only way to voice their displeasure .
*Propaganda is used to influecne peoples opinions , thus any propaganda used to change peoples mindset to one dominated by fear is terrorism .
*eg ISIS somedia activity .