Cranium, meninges and brain Flashcards Preview

LCRS Y2: Anatomy of the head, neck and spine > Cranium, meninges and brain > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cranium, meninges and brain Deck (59):
1

How many bones make up the skull?

22

2

Recall the 9 main bones of the skull

Frontal
Parietal
Temporal
Parietal
Zygoma
Ethmoid
Mandible
Maxilla
Occipital

3

What bone forms the roof of the mouth?

Palatine

4

What bone is seen to split the 2 halves of the nose?

Vomer

5

What foramina are found in the maxilla?

Intraorbital

6

Recall the 3 main sutures of the skull

Coronal
Saggital
Lamboid

7

What name is given to the protrusion at the most dorsal point of the occipital bone?

Inion (external occipital protuberance)

8

What name is given to the "soft spots" in the infant skull?

Fontanelles

9

What is the internal capsule?

Fibrous tract where fibres from the cortex come together

10

Recall the layers of the scalp, from superficial to deep

Skin
Connective tissue
Aponeurosis
Loose areolar tissue
Periosteum

11

Within which layer of the scalp are arteries, veins and nerves found?

Connective tissue

12

Which muscle's aponeurosis forms the aponeurotic layer of the scalp?

Occipital and frontal bellies of the occipitofrontalis muscle

13

Which layer of the scalp facilitates movement?

Loose areolar tissue

14

Recall the fossae of the skull

Anterior, middle and posterior cranial; cerebellar

15

Recall the structures that pass through the foramen magnum

Medulla
Meninges (these surround medulla)
Vertebral and spinal arteries (brain needs blood supply)
Dural veins (brain needs draining)

16

Which cranial fossa is the most shallow?

Anterior

17

Recall the borders of each cranial fossa

Anterior = frontal bone to body and lesser wings of sphenoid
Middle = to dorsum sellae of sphenoid
Posterior = to internal occipital proturberance

18

Recall the relative positioning of the wings of the sphenoid bone

Lesser wing = anterior
2 lateral greater wings of sphenoid

19

What lies posteriorly to the hypophysial fossa?

Dorsum sellae

20

Recall the foramina of the sphenoid bone, from anterior to posterior

Optic canals
Orbital fissures
Foramen rotundum
Foramen ovale
Foramen spinosum
Foramen lacerum

21

Recall the positioning of the sphenoid sinuses

There are 2: one anterior to and one posterior to the sphenoid body

22

Recall the layers of the meninges from superficial to deep

Dura mater, arachnoid mater, pia mater

23

Where do emissory veins run?

Originate in superficial fascia, drain into diploic vein within bone of skull

24

Where does the cerebral vein run in relation to the meninges?

Deep to all of them

25

Where is the subarachnoid space?

Between arachnoid mater and pia mater

26

Describe the structure and structural properties of the dura mater

Thich and inelastic
Periosteal and meningeal layer

27

Describe the structure and structural properties of the arachnoid mater

Elastic
Spider-like projections

28

Describe the structural properties of the pia mater

Thin and delicate

29

Which meningeal space is very large in the spine?

Extradural space

30

What is the falx cerebri?

Fold of meningeal layer of dura mater that runs into the longitudinal fissure

31

What is located at the base of the falx cerebri?

Inferior saggital sinus

32

Where is CSF produced and where is this located?

Choroid plexus = superior part of inferior horn of lateral ventricle

33

Recall the flow of CF from its production to its drainage

Lateral ventricle (choroid plexus)
interventricular foramen
3rd ventricle
cerebral aqueduct
4th ventricle
*various foramina*
subarachnoid space
arachnoid granulation villi = drainage --> superior saggital sinus

34

Why is an epidural bleed more dangerous in the skull than the spine?

Very small epidural space in brain so bleed is dangerous whereas in spine epidural space is large - ammeanable to CSF removal

35

What is the tenorium cerebelli and what is its function?

Extension of the dura mater that separates the cerebellum from the inferior part of the occipital lobes

36

Recall the foramina through which each of the cranial nerves enter

CNI = cribiform plate of ethmoid
CNII = optic canal
CNIII = superior orbital fissure
CNIV = superior orbital fissure
CNV1 = superior orbital fissure
CNV2 = foramen rotundum
CNV3 = foramen ovale
CNVI = superior orbital fissure
CNVII = internal acoustic meatus
CNVIII = internal acoustic meatus
CNIX = jugular foramen
CNX = jugular foramen
CNXI = jugular foramen
CNXI spinal roots = foramen magnum
CNXII = hypoglossal canal

37

Recall the vascular components that enter the skull via the optic canal

Ophthalmic artery
Central artery of retina

38

Recall the vascular components that enter the skull via the superior orbital fissure

Superior ophthalmic vein

39

Recall the path of the internal carotid artery entering the skull

Enters via the carotid canal, turns a right angle and runs just posterior to foramen lacerum

40

Recall the vascular components that enter the skull via the foramen spinosum

Middle meningeal artery and vein

41

Recall the vascular components that enter the skull via the internal acoustic meatus

Labyrinthine artery

42

Through which foramen of the skull does the sigmoid sinus drain into the internal jugular vein?

Jugular foramen

43

Recall the components of the Circle of Willis, from anterior to posterior

2 x Anterior cerebral
(connected by 2 x anterior communicating)
Joins: Bilateral internal carotids (medial) and middle cerebrals (lateral)
Posterior communicating arteries join them to the posterior cerebral
Superior cerebellar
Basilar
Anterior inferior cerebellar
Posterior inferior cerebellar
Vertebral
Anterior spinal

44

What is the main danger of a cavernous sinus thrombosis?

Disruption of cranial nerve travelling through

45

From which sinus does the great cerebral vein form?

Straight

46

Name the sinus branches that travel around the sides of the brain

Transverse sinuses

47

Which sinus encircles the IJV?

Sigmoid sinus

48

What do the transverse sinuses converge to form?

Cavernous sinuses

49

Why do scalp lacerations threaten the brain

Emissory veins provide a route of transmission of infection since they drain into deeper veins

50

Where is the pterion and why is it clinically significant?

Where temporal, frontal, occipital and parietal bones meet
Thin part of skull
MMA runs just below = very vulnerable to extradural bleed

51

Recall the names of the cranial nerves

1. Olfactory
2. Optic
3. Oculomotor
4. Trochlear
5. Trigeminal
6. Abducens
7. facial
8. Vestibulocochlear
9. Glossopharyngeal
10. Vagus
11. Accessory
12. Hypoglossal

52

Describe the course of the facial nerve as it exits the skull

Exits skull via internal acoustic meatus and then stylomastoid foramen
Runs over parotid gland
Branches into 5 nerves supplying the face

53

Where is the primary motor cortex located?

Pre-central gyrus

54

Where is the primary somatosensory cortex located?

Post-central gyrus

55

Recall the function of Wernicke's area

Sensory - speech

56

Recall the function of Broca's area

Motor - speech

57

Where are the colliculi seen on the brainstem?

Posteriorly, either side of pineal gland, on top of tectum

58

Posteriorly, what is seen in the centre of the pons?

4th ventricle

59

Recall some key distinguishing structures seen ANTERIORLY on the brainstem

Optic chiasm
Pituitary stalk
Mamillary bodies
Cerebral peduncles