Where is the pedicle on a vertebra?
It's the bilateral bit joining the body of the vertebra to the spines
Where is the lamina on a vertebra?
From the pedicle, these project posteromedially to form the spinous process
What attaches to the vertebral laminae?
What attaches to the thoracic transverse processes?
Costal cartilage, via articular process
What structure is unique to cervical vertebrae?
Transverse foraminae (for vertebral arteries)
Recall the normal degrees of flexion, extension, lateral flexion and rotation for the cervical spine
Flexion (looking down): 45 degrees Extension (looking up): 45 degrees Lateral flexion (Indian nod): 45 degrees Rotation (no): 80 degrees
Recall the normal degrees of flexion, extension, lateral flexion and rotation for the upper thoracic spine
Flexion: none Extension: no Lateral flexion: 30 degrees Rotation: 30 degrees
Recall the normal degrees of flexion, extension, lateral flexion and rotation for the lower thoracic spine
Flexion: 30 degrees
Extension: 30 degrees
Lateral flexion: 45 degrees
Rotation: 45 degrees
What is the name given to excessive thoracic curvature?
What is the name given to excessive lumbar curvature?
Recall the normal primary and secondary curvatures of the spine
Primary = anterior-pointing; thoracic and sacral Secondary = posterior-pointing; cervical and lumbar
Recall the names given to C1 and C2
C1 = Atlas C2 = Axis
What is unique about the Atlas vertebra?
No body or spinous process
What does the Atlas vertebra articulate with on its superior surface?
What is the main weight-bearing component of the Atlas vertebra?
What is the strongest ligament of the Axis vertebra and what is its function?
Transverse ligament Produces foramen for dens of axis to articulate
What head movement is produced at the Atlanto-axial joint?
"No" - rotation on superior articular facets of axis
What joint is responsible for nodding of the head?
What is the first vertebra visible as a bony landmark in the neck?
Recall the vertebral level of the medial end of the scapular spine
Recall the vertebral level of the inferior angle of the scapula
At what vertebral level is the iliac crest?
What sort of joints are the intervertebral joints?
Recall the 2 main structural components of the intervertebral discs
Nucleus pulposus Anulus fibrosus
What is the function of the ligamenta flava?
Connect adjacent laminae
Recall the 5 main ligaments found in the spine
Longitudinal ligaments - anterior and posterior Interspinous Supraspinous Ligamenta flava
Which meninges extend into the spine, and how far do they extend?
Arachnoid and dura --> S2
Prolapsed intervertebral disc
Degeneration of intervertebral disc
Stress fracture of pars inerarticularis
Forward displacement of vertebra