Oral cavity and upper GIT Flashcards Preview

LCRS Y2: Anatomy of the head, neck and spine > Oral cavity and upper GIT > Flashcards

Flashcards in Oral cavity and upper GIT Deck (46):
1

Describe the location of the Palatine tonsil

Between soft palate and back of tongue

2

Recall the boundaries of the nasopharynx, oropharynx and laryngopharynx

Nasopharynx = Pharyngeal tonsil --> inferiormost point of soft palate
Oropharynx = --> top of epiglottis
Laryngopharynx = --> inferior border of cricoid cartilage

3

What is found at the bifurcation of the oropharynx where the trachea and oesophagus begin?

Transverse arytenoid muscle

4

How can the oropharynx and nasopharynx be sealed off from one another?

Depression of pharyngeal isthmus

5

What is the main characterising feature of the oropharynx?

Lymphatic ring of lingual, pharyngeal and Palatine tonsils

6

Recall the movement of the epiglottis during swallowing

Retroflexes to cover trachea

7

What is the clinical relevance of the inlet of the larynx?

There is a bilateral piriform recess in which foreign bodies may become lodged

8

Describe the muscles of the pharynx

Constrictor muscles (circular) = sup, med and inf; sequentially contract superoinferiorly
Longitudinal muscles (vertically arranged) = elevate pharyngeal wall to bring it up and over a bolus of food during swallowing

9

Describe the muscular arrangement of the tongue

Intrinsic and extrinsic paired muscles, separated by median saggital septum

10

Describe the motor inneravtion of the tongue

Palatoglottus = CNX, all others = CNXII

11

Recall the origin, insertion and function of the intrinsic muscles of the tongue

Origin and insertion = within substance of tongue
Function = alter tongue shape

12

Recall the extrinsic muscles of the tongue

Genioglossus
Hyoglossus
Styloglossus
Palatoglossus

13

Recall the sensory innervation of the pharynx

Pharyngeal plexus (CNIX/X)

14

Recall the function of styloglossus

Lift and retract tongue

15

Recall the function of palatoglossus

Bolus --> oropharynx

16

What must be relaxed in order to open the oesophagus?

Cricopharyngeus

17

Recall the 3 salivary glands, their innervation and the composition of their secretions

1. Parotid, CNIX, serous
2. Submandibular, CNVII, serous
3. Sublingual, CNVII, mucous

18

Briefly summarise the location of each of the extrinsic tongue muscles

Immediately behind body of tongue = palatoglossus
Just behind that = styloglossus
Originating just behind the mandible and projecting superiorly = genioglossus

19

Describe the sensory innervation of the tongue

Anterior 2/3: sensation = V3, taste = VII
Posterior 2/3: sensation + taste = IX

20

Recall the 4 main muscles of mastecation

Superficial:
Masseter
Temporalis
Deep:
Lateral pterygoid
Medial pterygoid

21

Recall the origin and insertion of masseter

Zygomatic arch to ramus and angle of mandible - superficial and deep parts

22

What is the function of masseter?

Elevation of mandible to force closure of mouth

23

Recall the origin and insertion of Temporalis

Temporal fossa to mandibular coronoid process

24

What is the function of Temporalis?

Elevates and retracts mandible

25

Recall the origin and insertion of the lateral pterygoid muscle

Top of neck of mandible to sphenoid plate

26

Recall the origin and insertion of the medial pterygoid muscle

Maxilla to angle of mandible

27

What does the medial pterygoid overlie?

Buccinator

28

What is the function of lat. pterygoid?

Depresses and protracts mandible to open mouth

29

What is the function of med. pterygoid?

Acts on mandible to allow chewing: elevation, protraction and lateral movement

30

Summarise the structure of the temperomandibular joint

Superior --> inferior:
Temporal tubercle
Mandibular fossa
Articular disc
Joint capsule
Head of mandible

31

Which action of the TMN predominates in slight opening of the jaw?

Hinge action

32

Which action of the TMN predominates in wideopening of the jaw?

Hinge AND GLIDING movements

33

Recall the order of the 8 branches of the external carotid artery

She Always Likes Friends Over Papa, Sister, and Mama
Superior thyroid
Ascending pharyngeal
Lingual
Facial
Occipital
Posterior Auricular
Superficial temporal
Maxillary

34

Recall the branches of the facial nerve, from superior to inferior

Temporal
Zygomatic
Buccal
Mandibular
Cervical

35

Describe the path of the parotid duct

Penetrates buccinators and opens into the oral cavity adjacent to 2nd upper molar

36

Which nerve innervates the parotid gland?

IX

37

Where does the submandibular gland lie (2 descriptions)?

Along body of mandible
Partly superficial and partly deep to nylohyoid

38

Where does the submandibular duct open out?

Either side of frenulum of tongue

39

Describe the location of the sublingual glands

Scattered along the submandibular duct into which some of them open

40

Recall the innervation of the muscles of mastecation

Mandibular branch of trigeminal (V3)

41

Recall the function of buccinator

Presses cheeks against molars when chewing

42

What sort of tissue makes up the articular disc of the TMJ?

fibrocartilaginous

43

Describe the origin of the lingual nerve?

Main origin = V3, exits via foramen ovale
Also a contribution from facial nerve through chorda tympani

44

Which nerve is the main contributor to the inferior dental plexus?

Inferior alveolar nerve

45

How many teeth in a full adult set? Recall how many of each type

32 including wisdom teeth:
Per quadrant:
2 incisors
1 canine
2 premolars
3 molars

46

Describe where you would test each of the dermatomes of the face

V1 = forehead
V2 = Between nose and lip, or cheek
V3 = Chin or more lateral cheek