Upper airway and GIT Flashcards Preview

LCRS Y2: Anatomy of the head, neck and spine > Upper airway and GIT > Flashcards

Flashcards in Upper airway and GIT Deck (32):
1

Recall the functions of the nasal cavities

Warm and humidify air, help trap pathogens

2

What lies on the lateral wall of each of the nasal cavities?

Nasal conchae

3

What lies in between each nasal cavity?

Meatuses

4

Recall the bones that contribute to each nasal concha

Superior and middle conchae = parts of ethmoid bone
Inferior concha = bone in itself

5

Recall the 4 nerves innervating the nasal cavity, and what they are involved in sensing

1. Olfactory nerve - olfaction
2. Trigeminal nerve - sensory (V1 = anterior, V2 = posterior)
3. Facial nerve - glands
4. T1 SNS fibres = VSMCs

6

Recall the blood supply to the nasal cavity and its clinical relevance

Ant. and post. ethmoidal arteries
Area of significant anastomoses is prone to nose bleeds

7

Summarise the venous drainage of the nasal cavity

Nasal vein
Facial vein
Pterygoid plexus
Cavernous sinus

8

Recall each of the paranasal sinuses

Frontal
Ethmoidal air cells
Sphenoid
Maxillary

9

Recall the relative positioning of the paranasal sinuses in a lateral view

Anterior: Superior to inferior = frontal (eye sockets) maxillary
Posterior to eye sockets, working posteriorly = eye sockets, sphenoid`

10

Recall the regional mapping of each nasal cavity, and summarise the function of each region

3 regions:
1. Nasal vestibule (particle removal)
2. Respiratory region (temo and humidity adjustment)
3. Olfactory region (olfaction)

11

Describe the lining of each of the paranasal sinuses

Ciliated and mucous-secreting respiratory mucosa

12

Describe the innervation of the paranasal sinuses

Branches of the trigeminal

13

Why do the paranasal sinuses provide a possible route for infection?

Connected to pharynx by small holes

14

Where do the posterior ethmoidal air cells drain into?

Superior nasal meatus

15

Which paranasal sinus is the largest?

Maxillary

16

How may the maxillary sinus in particular provide a route for infection?

Only a thin layer separating it from tooth so tooth infection can infect sinus

17

What are the 2 functions of the larynx?

Voice box
Valve to close LRT

18

Recall the structural components of the larynx

3 large unpaired cartilages (cricoid, thyroid and epiglottis)
3 small paired cartilages (arytenoid, cuneiform and corniculate)
Fibro-elastic membrane

19

From where is the larynx superiorly suspended?

Hyoid

20

Describe the shape of the thyroid cartilage

Right and left lamina are widely separated posteriorly but converge to join anteriorly

21

Describe the shape and location of the arytenoid cartilages

Pyramidal
Postero-inferior to epiglottis

22

Recall the attachments of the vocal folds

Anterior = thyroid cartilage
Posterior = arytenoid cartilages

23

What and where are the false vocal folds?

Vestibular folds = above bioth sides of the true vocal folds

24

What structures of the larynx must move to affect pitch?

Arytenoid cartilages and cricothyroid joint

25

Recall the functional components of the facial nerve

Motor - to muscles of facial expression
Sensory - contributes to lingual nerve via CT to supply ant. 2/3 of tongue
PNS - salivary glands (not parotid) and lacrimal glands

26

Recall the route of the facial nerve

Leaves skull via IAM
Passes through stylomastoid foramen
Supplies face via parotid gland

27

Recall the pathophysiology of Bell's palsy

Inflammation of stylomastoid foramen puts pressure on CNVII --> ipsilateral facial paralysis

28

What function is lost when there is a lesion of the internal laryngeal nerve?

Loss of sensation above vocal folds

29

What function is lost when there is a lesion of the external laryngeal nerve?

Paralysis of cricothyroid

30

What function is lost when there is a lesion of the recurrent laryngeal nerve

Paralysis of all muscles of larynx except cricothyroid
Loss of sensation BELOW vocal folds

31

Summarise the cough and sneeze reflexes and how to differentiate them

Irritation sensed by laryngeal branches of CNX
Phrenic and thoracic nerves initiate deep inhalation
Closed glottis --> pressure buildup
Forced exhalation
Cough only: air escapes via mouth as oropharyngeal isthmus = open
Sneeze only: air escapes via nose as oropharyngeal isthmus = closed

32

What is the clinical relevance of the relationship between the mastoid antrum and the mastoid air cells

Infection can spread: pharynx --> middle ear --> mastoid process