Crime and Punishment Glossary Flashcards Preview

FHS Yr11 Mr McGhee history revision > Crime and Punishment Glossary > Flashcards

Flashcards in Crime and Punishment Glossary Deck (148)
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1

18th and 19th Century

The period covering the 1700s and the 1800s

2

Abolition

The ending, banning or getting rid of something

3

Agree

To have the same opinion as someone or something

4

Anglo-Saxon

The people of England before the Norman times; the Anglo-Saxons ruled England until 1066

5

Anti-social behaviour

Causing a nuisance or distress to people outside your home

6

Benefit of the clergy

A rule that said that the clergy (priests) would not be put on trial in the ordinary courts, but in church courts instead, which were often more leniant.

7

Bloody Code

The name given to laws introduced in the 1700s that massively increased the types of crime punishable by death

8

Bow Street Runners

The first semi-official police force, introduced by the Field brothers

9

Capital punishment

The death penalty, or execution

10

Car crime

Crimes related to cars and driving, eg speeding, car theft etc

11

Century

A period of 100 years

12

Change

Something that is different from before

13

Change over time

Something that becomes different as time passes

14

Chronology

Time or time order, arranging things in the order they happened.

15

CID

The Criminal Investigation Department: a branch of the police first set up 1878 that involves plainclothes detectives investigating crimes.

16

Clergy

A name for priests

17

Compare

To look at two different things - sources, features, events - and see what is similar (or different) about them.

18

Compensation

When you receive money for something you have lost or has been damaged (eg property, an injury, death of a family member)

19

Confession

When someone admits to committing a crime (this can sometimes be after torture or threats)

20

Conscientious Objectors

People who refused to fight in wars, eg World War One, because they believed in peace.

21

Continuity

Where things stay the same, or very similar, over time.

22

Contrast

To look for the differences between two or more things.

23

Conviction

When a defendant in a trial is found guilty, they are convicted or given a conviction.

24

Corporal punishment

Physcial types of punishment, eg whipping

25

Counter-terrorism

Prevention terrorism and terrorist groups

26

County Court

A court that deals with less serious offences, not crimes

27

Crime prevention

Stopping crime before it happens

28

Crimes against authority

A crime involving going against the king or the nobles or other forms of authority

29

Crimes against property

A crime involving someone's property, eg stealing an object or burning down a house

30

Crimes against the person

A crime involving violence against someone, eg assault or murder

31

Custodial sentences

A sentence of prison

32

Demobbed from the army

When soldiers return from war and leave the army.

33

Derek Bentley

Sentenced to death for murdering a policeman even though he did not pull the trigger of the murder weapon

34

Deterrent

Something that makes you not want to do something, eg not want to commit a crime

35

Difference

Not the same as something else

36

Disagree

To have a different opinion from someone else

37

DNA

The genetic code in human cells; individual people can be identified using DNA left in tiny human cells left at crime scenes

38

Driving offences

An offence committed as a driver of a car, eg not having insurance or speeding

39

Drug crime

A crime involving illegal drugs (using them or buying/selling them)

40

Early Modern

The period 1500-1700

41

Elizabeth Fry

A campaigner for improving the very bad prison conditions in the first half of the 1800s

42

Era

A distinct period of time

43

Execution

An official, legal killing of someone for committing a serious crime

44

Extent of change

How much change happened

45

Factor for change

A reason for, or one cause of, change

46

Fielding brothers

Magistrates (brothers Henry and John) who set up the Bow Street Runners

47

Fine

Money paid as a punishment for a crime

48

Forest laws

Laws introduced by the Normans to reserve large areas for the king to go hunting; ordinary people could not collect wood or hunt animals in the forest

49

Forgery

Copying something and pretending it is the real thing, eg forging coins to make fake money

50

Fraud

A type of crime where someone deceives another person to take advantage (usually financial) of them

51

Gangs

A group of people, often a criminal group

52

Gentlemen of the road

A nickname given to describe highwaymen

53

Government

The group of people who have the authority to rule over a country

54

Gunpowder Plot

A plot (secret plan) to blow up Parliament and King James I in 1605; the plotters were Catholics unhappy with how their religion was treated.

55

Guy Fawkes

A key member of the Gunpowder Plot, he placed the gunpowder underneath Parliament and was arrested, tortured and executed.

56

Heresy

A religious crime, where you do not believe in the official form or religion

57

Highway robbery

A crime where highwaymen would stop carriages on their journey between towns, to demand money or valuables from the travellers

58

Hue and cry

The system were the inhabitants of a village in the Middle Ages would call out for help to catch a criminal

59

Hung, drawn and quartered

A rare punishment usually given to a traitor, where they were sentenced to death by hanging, then cut down alive and cut into pieces.

60

Identify theft

A crime where someone takes on someone else's identity and pretends to be them to steal money

61

Importance

Being important

62

Individuals

Individual people, a single person

63

Influence of the Church

The power that the Church had in government and over society, especially in the Middle Ages

64

John Howard

A prison reformer in the late 1700s who campaigned for better treatment of prisoners, and argued for giving prisoners time alone to reflect

65

Jury

A group of 12 people (men only until 1919) who heard serious court cases and decided if someone was guilty or not guilty of a crime

66

Justice

The idea of creating fairness, and punishing people who commit crimes and breaking the rules of society

67

King Henry II

King of England from 1154 to 1189.

68

King Henry VIII

The second Tudor monarch, King of England 1509-1547.

69

King James I

King of England from 1603-1625

70

King William I

Known as William the Conqueror, who successfully invaded England in 1066, defeating King Harold Godwinson at the Battle of Hastings, and King of England 1066-1087.

71

Law enforcement

Making sure the law is followed, by using police and

72

Let him have it!

The phrase supposedly spoken by Derek Bentley just before Christopher Craig shot a policeman, and which led to his sentence to death for murder.

73

Martyr

A person who willingly suffers death rather than deny their religion.

74

Matthew Hopkins

Known as the 'Witchfinder General' he was responsible for the execution of up to 300 women he called witches

75

Media

How we communicate and reach other people. For example, newspapers, radio, internet etc.

76

Medieval period

The period c1000-c1500

77

Metropolitan police founded

The starting of the first official police force in England, the Metropolitan Police in 1829, to police London

78

Milestone

An important and significant event, often representing a great moment of change

79

Modern Era

The period from 1900 to the present day

80

Monarchy

The system of having a monarch in charge

81

Mugging

Attacking and robbing someone in a public place

82

Murder in the Cathedral

The killing of Archbishop Thomas Becket in 1170

83

Neighbourhood watch

A system where neighbours in a local area keep an eye out for suspicious behaviour to report to the police, and also to deter crime

84

Night watchmen

A group of men who would patrol a town at night to keep it safe and peaceful

85

Non-custodial sentences

A sentence given by a judge that does not involve prison

86

Norman

Someone from Normandy, the Normans ruled England from 1066

87

Open prisons

A type of prison used in the 20th century where prisoners had a lot of freedom, used for low-risk criminals

88

Orphans

Children who no longer had parents and were looked after by other people, often in orphanages

89

Parish constable

A local person from the community who was responsible for keeping law and order in the parish, or village

90

Penal reform

Making changes to improve the penal (prison) system

91

Pentonville Prison

A prison in London built in 1816 known as the first modern prison in Britain, which kept prisoners using the separate system

92

Petty crime

Smaller, less important or less serious types of crime, like stealing a very small amount

93

Pickpocket

Someone who steals someone's purse or wallet without the victim noticing

94

Pillory

A form of public punishment where a criminal would put their head and hands through a wooden frame

95

Poaching

Hunting animals on someone else's land without permission

96

Police force

An official and professional group of people responsible for enforcing law and order

97

Police beat

A police officer would have a 'beat' which was the route that they patrolled

98

Police dogs (bloodhounds)

Bloodhounds are used by police for their sense of smell, which can help police hunt criminals hours or even days after the crime

99

Population growth

The increase in population, the increasing number of people living in the country

100

Present day

The increase in population, the increasing number of people living in the country

101

Prevention

Stopping something from happening before it happens

102

Prison

A place where people are held securely, either before trial or as a punishment

103

Public execution

An execution held in front of a large crowd

104

Queen Mary I (Tudor)

Queen of England 1553-1558, who changed England back to a Catholic country and made being Protestant a crime

105

Race crime

A crime committed against someone due to their race or skin colour

106

Reform

To make something better, improve it

107

Rehabilitation

Making a criminal become a better person and bringing them back into society as a good citizen

108

Retribution

To get revenge for something by using a punishment to cause suffering

109

Robbery

Stealing something from someone or from a property using force, or the threat of force

110

Role of the Church

The influence of the Church and priests over people's lives, morals and how crimes were defined and punished

111

Sanctuary

Going to a church and claiming sanctuary meant that you could not be arrested for 40 days

112

Science and new technology

In the Industrial Age and Modern Period this became more important in new techniques for solving crime

113

Scotland Yard

The headquarters of the Metropolitan Police in London

114

Separate system

The policy of keeping prisoners separate from anybody else for most of, or all of, the day

115

Sheriff

The person responsible for law and order in a county or shire

116

Significance

Importance

117

Similarity

Something that is nearly the same, or the same in a particular way, as something else

118

Sir Robert Peel

The Home Secretary who founded the Metropolitan Police in 1829

119

Smuggling

Bringing goods into the country illegally (either banned items, or to avoid paying tax)

120

Social attitudes

The opinion of the public about certain things

121

Specialisation of Police

The formation of the police into divisions with particular jobs or expertise, eg detectives, scenes-of-crimes officers, etc

122

Stealing

To take a possession from someone else without their permission

123

Stocks

A form of public punishment where a criminal would put their feet through a wooden frame

124

Supersition

A belief in the supernatural, based on belief in things like magic or luck rather than science

125

Taser

A late 20th century police weapon designed to shock a threatening suspect so that they can be overpowered and arrested

126

Theft

The action or crime of stealing

127

Thief-takers

A private person who would hunt down a criminal in return for a reward

128

Thomas Beckett

The Archbishop of Canterbury who was murdered in 1170 by knights of King Henry II

129

Time period

A group of years defined in a certain way, like a century (100 years) or the Modern Era (1900 onwards)

130

Tithings

A group of 10 men above the age of 12 who were responsible for policing themselves in the Medieval Period

131

Tolpuddle Martyrs

A group of poor workers who were punished for organising a union to fight for better pay, sentenced to transportation to Australia

132

Torture

A way of extracting information from someone, or getting them to confess to a crime, by causing suffering, eg using thumbscrews, the rack

133

Town watchman

A group of men who would patrol a time or guard the town gates, usually at night, to keep it safe

134

Trial by jury

A trial decided by a jury of 12 ordinary people, who hear the evidence and decide if the defendant is guilty or not guilty of a crime

135

Transportation

Being sent to a colony outside of Britain as a punishment, for example sent to a prison camp in Australia

136

Treason

The crime of going against the king, or betraying your country; seen in the Medieval era as the worst type of crime

137

Trial by combat

A trial where guilt is determined by who wins a fight, such as a sword fight

138

Trial by ordeal

A trial where guilt is determined by going through an ordeal, eg holding a hot iron - if it started to heal after a week, you were not guilty; if it didn't, you were guilty

139

Turning point

An event or moment in history that led to certain important changes

140

Two-way radio

A radio used by police so that officers on the street can communicate with headquarters and with each other

141

Vagabond

Term describing a person without a home or a job in the Medieval and Early Modern period

142

Wergild

A fine paid to compensate someone (or their family) for causing injury or death

143

Whipping

A punishment involving getting attacked by a whip, that could cause bleeding and permanent scarring

144

Whistle

Used by police officers in the nineteenth century to attract attention or call for help

145

Witchcraft

A kind of magic (supposedly practiced by women)

146

Witchfinder General

Mathew Hopkins

147

Young offenders

Someone who commits a crime or offence under the age of 18

148

Cockshafer

the prison treadmill a pointless activity to keep the prisoners busy.