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FHS Yr11 Mr McGhee history revision > Russia Glossary > Flashcards

Flashcards in Russia Glossary Deck (102)
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1

Abdicate

Give up political power (usually by the ruler of a country). Tsar Nicholas II abdicated in February 1917

2

5 year-plans

Ambitious plans to modernise the USSR in terms of industry and agriculture

3

Agricultural production

Crops and animals grown and raise by farmers.

4

April Theses

Lenin's successful propaganda campaign of: "Peace, Land, Bread and all power to the soviets"

5

Autocract

The Tsar was an Autocrat with absolute power.

6

Autocracy

Rule by one person who has complete power.

7

Bolshevik party

The opposition party led by Lenin that took power in October 1917

8

Bourgeois

To do with the middle classes (for example doctors, teachers). Used as an insult by communists who favour the working classes.

9

Bukharin

A key member of the politburo and Lenin's favourite. Bukharin was tricked by Stalin into supporting the NEP and then removed from power in 1929.

10

Bureaucracy

Groups of officials who carry out government orders and run the country.

11

Capital punishment

Punishing crime by executing the criminal.

12

Capitalist

A person who owns land or factories and makes their money not by working but by selling what workers on the land or in the factories produce.

13

Censorship

Telling the media what they can or cannot print or say. Stalin used censorship extensively as a method to extend his power and influence.

14

Cheka

The Bolshevik secret police until 1922, who had special powers to arrest and imprison without trial.

15

Civil war

War between groups of people in the same country. The ’Whites’ fought the ‘Reds’, 1918-21.

16

Collective

Where everyone who works lives in one place follows a set of rules drawn up by the group.

17

Collectivisation

Stalin’s agricultural policy to increase food production and bring agricultural (farming) under state control.

18

Commander-in-chief

The leader in charge of the Russian army.

19

Communes

Groups that run themselves.

20

Communism

A system where everyone is equal, the state owns everything and provides everything that people need.

21

Conscripted

Forced to join the armed services.

22

Constituent Assembly

The govt set up by the Provisional Govt after the February Revolution of 1917, and elected under Bolshevik Rule after the October Revolution of 1917.

23

Constitution (1936)

This was an attempt by Stalin to signal to Britain and America that the USSR would be a useful ally in the upcoming war against Hitler. The 1936 Constitution attempted to make the USSR look democratic.

24

Council of People’s Commissars (CPC)

The group that ran the early Bolshevik Government.

25

Counter-revolution

A revolution to overturn a recent revolution (either to replace the system the first revolution overthrew or to replace it with a third system).

26

Coup d’etat

Violently overthrowing a government.

27

Cult of Stalin

See Cult of the personality

28

Cult of the personality

This propaganda in posters, books and films showing Stalin as a man of the revolution, a father figure, and a leader created adulation and extended his power.

29

Evidence

Specific information used to support an exam answer: Dates, names, examples.

30

Explain

Show how the evidence links to the key words from the exam question - use these words in this part of the paragraph.

31

February Revolution

A spontaneous show of anger in Russia which took place in February 1917 and that led to the abdication of the Tsar in March 1917

32

First World War

A global conflict from 1914 to 1918. Russia left the war in 1917.

33

FMOK

From my own knowledge - a phrase used in utility question answers to show that you are accessing specific evidence that is NOT in the sources to evaluate the usefulness of the contents for the enquiry.

34

Forced famine

When food is removed from a geographic area, resulting in the famine and death of many people. For example, the Holodomor in Ukraine from 1932-33.

35

Gosplan

The State Planning Committee that ran the Five-Year Plans.

36

Gulag

A prison built in Stalin’s USSR which was full of opponents of Stalin, or Kulaks, who were used as slave labour during the 5 year plans.

37

Historians view

The interpretation of an event by a Historian.

38

Holodomor

The ‘forced famine’ 1932 – 33 where 3-4 million people died, especially in the Ukraine, due to collectivisation.

39

Industrialisation

The process of forced, managed and rapid industrialisation during Stalin’s USSR. The 5 year plans set high targets for industry to meet.

40

Infer

Read between the lines of a source - make an educated guess based on details in the source.

41

Interpretation

One way of viewing an event in the past.

42

July Days

A spontaneous outbreak of anger and resentment towards the Provisional Government in July 1917. Soldiers and sailors refused to depart to fight in the First World War. Soldiers and workers demanded that the Petrograd Soviet take command of the country and peasants across Russia took land and killed landowners.

43

Kadet party

A political party led by officers from the Russian army. They wanted to keep the Tsar - but only as a figurehead, like the monarchy in Britain.

44

Kamenev

A hard-left member of the Politburo. Kamenev was against starting the revolution in October 1917 and was later put on a 'show trial' by Stalin in 1937, accused of assassinating Kirov (in 1934). He was executed.

45

Kerensky

One leader of the Provisional Government from March to October 1917.

46

Kolkhoz

A collectivised farm in the USSR where peasants would work together and share land and equipment.

47

Kronstadt rebellion (or rebellion)

In March 1921 the 15,000 Kronstadt sailors mutinied against the Bolsheviks government in protest over War Communism. The rebellion was crushed was Trotsky.

48

Kulaks

Better off peasants who had benefited from Lenin’s New Economic Policy.

49

Labour camps

Forced labour camps or gulags, used as prisons where the inmates had to do hard work.

50

Leadership contest

When rivals for power compete to become the leader. For example, after the death of Lenin in 1924.

51

Leon Trotsky

A key member of the politburo who rose up to become Lenin's right-hand man and the leader of the Red Guard and then the Red Army. He was eventually exiled by Stalin in 1927.

52

Machine Tractor Station (MTS)

Peasants would rent tractors and agricultural machinery, from a central station, to use on the collectivised farms

53

Martial law

When the normal government is replaced (usually in an emergency) by rule by the army.

54

Mass production

Making goods that have standardised parts (for example, the same sized bolts) to make them quicker and cheaper to produce.

55

Mechanisation

The process of using machines to do physical work, especially in agriculture. For example, usingn tractors instead of oxen or horses to plough fields. This was part of the industrialisation of agriculture that happened diring collectivisation.

56

Media censorship

Censoring newspapers, radio or other broadcasting so that the news reported was controlled.

57

Menshevik party

The larger of the two groups that were formed when the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) was split between Julius Martov and Vladimir Lenin. Lenin led the other group - the Bolsheviks.

58

Military Revolutionary Committee

The part of the Petrograd Soviet that deal with organising armed support (in the army and elsewhere) for the October Revolution of 1917.

59

Mutinied

Refused to obey the orders of those in command, usually in the armed services.

60

Mutiny in the army

When soldiers refused to follow orders.

61

Nature

The nature of a source is what type of source it is: a letter? A newspaper article? A poster?

62

New Economic Policy (NEP)

Introduced in 1921 by Lenin to win back support of people. Allowed private businesses and farms and profit.

63

NKVD

Name of secret police under Stalin.

64

Okhrana

The Tsar’s secret police, who had special powers to arrest and imprison without trial.

65

Origin

When or where a primary source comes from.

66

Peasants

The lowest section of Russian society. In 1917, peasants made up 80% of the population of Russia

67

Petrograd Soviet

The organisation of workers who held de facto/real power in competition against the Provisional Government from March to October 1917. Eventually dominated by the Bolsheviks.

68

Point of view

An interpretation of an event

69

Politiburo

The most powerful leaders of the Communist Party

70

Political commissar

An official under the Bolshevik government, in charge of making sure important groups (such as the army) stay loyal.

71

Propaganda

Giving information, true or false, to make people think or behave in a particular way.

72

Provenance

This word combines Nature, Origin and Purpose of a primary source - you should try to use as many of the three ways as possible to evaulate the usefulness of the source

73

Provisional Government

The government of Russia from the abdication of the Tsar (2 March 1917) to the seizure of power by the Bolsheviks (25 October 1917).

74

Purge

The removal of enemies through terror.

75

Purges in the armed forces

The removal of officers seen as enemies of the state

76

Purpose

What action was the source designed to achieve? How does this impact on the usefulness of the source?

77

Red Army

The army of the Bolshevik, later Communist, government.

78

Red Guard

The workers’ fighting units set up by the Bolsheviks.

79

Red terror

The use of violence and terror by the early Bolshevik secret police - the Chekha - during the Civil War from 1918-21

80

Reds

Bolsheviks or Communists. Red symbolises the blood of the people and is used in Bolshevik and Communist flags.

81

Revolution

A sudden or drastic change in a society’s political, economic structures.

82

Russification

This was a forced programme, initiated by Stalin, to make every citizen in the USSR be ‘Russian’. For example, everyone in the 15 Republics had to speak the Russian language. Many ethnic minorities were persecuted.

83

Sabotage

Deliberately destroying or damaging something in a factory or other workplace.

84

Secret ballot

Voting secretly.

85

Show trials

Fake trials, conducted for propaganda purposes. Stalin held some famous show trials to remove his rivals from power, notably Kamenev and Zinoviev

86

Social inequality

Where people are not equal, some are rich, some are poor.

87

Socialist realism

The official artistic movement from 1932. Socialist realism is characterized by the glorified depiction of communist values, such as the emancipation of the proletariat

88

Soviet

An elected council of workers.

89

Sovkhov

A ‘state farm’ in Stalin’s USSR. The peasants were employed and paid a wage by the government to work on the state farm. Sovkhov were larger state farms than the Kolkhoz.

90

Stakhanov

A coal miner who mined 227 tonnes of coal in a single shift. He became a celebrity in 1935 as part of what became known as the Stakhanovite movement

91

Stakhanovite movement

A campaign intended to increase worker productivity and to demonstrate the superiority of the socialist economic system, named after Alexey Stakhanov

92

Strike

When workers refuse to work due to pay or poor working conditions

93

The Kornilov revolt (or affair)

In July 1917 General Kornilov’s army marched to Petrograd to shut down the Provisional government and seize power. It was stopped.

94

Totalitarian regime

A government that is the opposite of democracy - ruled by one person or one political party who make all the laws

95

Treaty of Brest Litovsk

Signed the 3 March 1918, this was the terms and peace given by Germany to end Russia’s participation in WWI.

96

Tsar

The title of the Ruler of Russia until 1917. An Emperor.

97

Useful

How much help does the primary source give you as a historian in terms of the specific enquiry in the question?

98

USSR

Unionn of Soviet Socialist Republics. Officially set up in 1922.

99

Valdimir Lenin

Leader of the Bolshevik Party until his death in 1924

100

War Communism

Lenin placed the Russian economy under government control in 1918. War Communism was unpopular, but Lenin justified it to win the Civil War.

101

Whites

The enemies of the Reds during the Civil War 1918-22. The Whites included ex-allies of Russia from WWI and anti-Bolshevik forces

102

Zinoviev

A hard-left member of the Politburo. Zinoviev was against starting the revolution in October 1917 and was later put on a 'show trial' by Stalin in 1937, accused of assassinating Kirov (in 1934). He was executed.