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FHS Yr11 Mr McGhee history revision > Henry Glossary > Flashcards

Flashcards in Henry Glossary Deck (71)
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1

Abbess

A woman who is the head or superior of certain communities of nuns

2

Abbot

A man who is the head or superior, usually elected, of a monastery.

3

Act of Succession 1534

This law made it clear that King Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn were the King and Queen and their children would inherit the throne. This act, effectively, set Princess Elizabeth first in line for the throne, declaring Princess Mary a bastard.

4

Alter Rex

Alter-nate King (Rex). The title given to Wolsey because he had so much power and money.

5

Amicable Grant

An attempt to raise money to fund a war against France in 1525. It did not have parliamentary authority and was a huge failure.

6

Anne of Cleves

Queen consort of England from 6 January to 9 July 1540 as the fourth wife of King Henry VIII.

7

Annulment

An annulment legally declares that no true marriage existed. In Henry's time, this could be because the marriage was never consumated - therefore it never really happened as a marriage.

8

Archbishop

A bishop of the highest rank in the Catholic church. In England, there were two Archbishops: York and Canterbury

9

Bigod's Rebellion

The last of the three uprisings that made up the Pilgrimage of Grace. This was brutally put down by Henry VIII in January 1537.

10

Bishop

A senior member of the clergy, usually in charge of a diocese and empowered to confer holy orders

11

Blue blood

The blood that which flows in the veins of old and aristocratic families. In other words, to have 'blue blood' means you were in the nobility.

12

Cardinal

A leading dignitary of the Roman Catholic Church. Cardinals are nominated by the Pope, and form the Sacred College which elects succeeding popes (now invariably from among their own number).

13

Catherine of Aragon

The daughter of the King and Queen of Spain. She married Henry's older brother Arthur. Arthur died as a child and she was then married to Henry VIII.

14

Catholic

The only religion in Europe until the Reformation introduced Protestantism.

15

Chief Minister

The most important adviser to the King. Under Henry, it was first Wosley and then Cromwell.

16

Consumated

This means the married couple have had sexual intercourse and the marriage is therefore seen as valid.

17

Convent

A religious house for nuns.

18

Cromwell's commissioners

These men were given the job of travelling around the country to evaluate two things: How moral the monasteries were and the wealth of the Church in England

19

Defender of the faith

This was the title given to Henry by the Pope at the start of his reign. It meant he was the defender of the Catholic religion.

20

Dissolution of the monasteries

When Cromwell completely dissolved, or got rid of, the monasteries. Starting with the smaller ones and moving on to the larger ones.

21

Divorce

When a marriage is declared over.

22

Duke of Norfolk

The second most powerful member of the nobility after King Henry VIII. His name was Thomas Howard.

23

Elizabeth Barton

Known as "The Nun of Kent", "The Holy Maid of London", "The Holy Maid of Kent" and later "The Mad Maid of Kent", was an English Catholic nun. She was executed as a result of her prophecies against the marriage of King Henry VIII of England to Anne Boleyn.

24

Eltham Ordinances

An attempt by Thomas Cromwell in 1526 to control the Privy Chamber. Cromwell wanted to clean it up, reduce spending and also control the men eho had access to the 'King's ear'.

25

Enclosure

When powerful men (nobility) enclose common land (with fences) for their own private purposes. Common land was supposed to be there for all people to use.

26

Fall from power

Lose power and authority

27

Field of the Cloth of Gold (1520)

A meeting between Henry VIII and Francis I of France. The meeting was a huge advert for each king, with massive feasts and wrestling. It made Henry look strog and powerful.

28

France

The 'Old Enemy' across the channel. England had ruled over large parts of France for hundreds of years but steadily lost control until, under Henry, England only had the ports of Boulogne and Calais left.

29

Francis I

The King of France. France was hugely powerful and Henry was very jealous of Francis.

30

Gentry

The social class below nobility. The gentry were educated and often held positions of authority such as JP (Justice of the Peace) or worked in areas such as law.

31

Groom of the stool

The man in the Privy Chamber who checks the King's poo every day to see if there might be any medical problems. Disgusting, but a very powerful role to have!

32

Heir to the throne

The next in line to inherit the throne.

33

Holy Roman Empire

The empire set up in western Europe following the coronation of Charlemagne as emperor in the year 800. It was created by the medieval papacy in an attempt to unite Christendom under one rule. At times the territory of the empire was extensive and included Germany, Austria, Switzerland, and parts of Italy and the Netherlands.

34

Influence of the Boleyns

The Boleyns were a prominent English family in the gentry and aristocracy. They reached the peak of their influence during the Tudor period, when Anne Boleyn became the second wife of Henry VIII, their daughter being the future Elizabeth I. Her father Thomas and brother George were also influential members of the Privy Council. However, Anne became the first Queen to be executed in public and the Boleyn family influence then disappeared.

35

Influence of the Seymours

The Seymours reached the peak of their influence in the 16th century, when Jane Seymour became the third wife of King Henry VIII. Her son became Edward VI and ruled England from 1547 to 1553.

36

Jane Seymour

Queen of England from 1536 to 1537 as the third wife of King Henry VIII. She succeeded Anne Boleyn as queen consort following the latter's execution in May 1536. She died of postnatal complications less than two weeks after the birth of her only child, a son who became King Edward VI.

37

Justices of the Peace (JPs)

Large landowners or members of the gentry who kept law and order in their local areas.

38

John Fisher

Bishop of Rochester who resisted King Henry VIII of England by refusing to recognize royal supremacy and the abolition of papal jurisdiction over the English church. He was beheaded as a traitor in 1535.

39

Legitimate

Means conforming to the law or rules. So if a marriage is legitimate - it is legally sound and, within the Catholic church, cannot be ended by divorce.

40

Midst of Spain

Prince Arthur (Henry's older brother) said after his wedding night to Catherine of Aragon that he had spent the night "in the midst of Spain" - this ambiguous statement caused people to wonder whether or not he had concumated his marriage. If so, it gave Henry a just reason to ask for a divorce. Catherine always maintained that they had not consumated the marriage.

41

Monastery

A religious house for monks. They varied in size.

42

Monk

A man who has devoted his life to the Roman Catholic church. There are many different 'orders' of monks.

43

MP

Member of Parliament

44

Noble

A person with 'blue blood' or member of the aristocracy. There were many noble families, with varying amounts of land, money and power in different parts of the country.

45

Nuns

Women who devoted their life to the Roman Catholic church

46

Pigrimage of Grace

A popular rebellion against the dissolution of the monasteries in 1536. Led by a member of the gentry called Robert Aske. The Pilgrimage of Grace was actually three separate rebellions that are often referred to as one.

47

Pope Julius II

The Pope who granted the marriage between Henry VIII and his brother's widow - Catherine of Aragon

48

Pope Clement VII

THe Pope who could not grant the divorce between Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon

49

Primogeniture

The law that said that the eldest son would inherit his father's possessions.

50

Prioress

A prioress is a monastic superior for nuns, usually lower in rank than an abbess.

51

Priory

A priory is a monastery of men or women under religious vows that is headed by a prior or prioress.

52

Protestant

A member or follower of any of the Western Christian Churches that are separate from the Roman Catholic Church in accordance with the principles of the Reformation, including the Baptist, Presbyterian, and Lutheran Churches.

53

Rebellions in Lincolnshire

The first rebellion that started the Pilgrimage of Grace in 1536. There were other causes as well as the dissolution of the monasteries.

54

Rebellions in Yorkshire

The second rebellion that made up the Pilgrimage of Grace. This is were the rebellion had the largest following (roughly 40,000) and was led by Robert Aske.

55

Reformation

A 16th-century movement for the reform of abuses in the Roman Church ending in the establishment of the Reformed and Protestant Churches.

56

Rise to power

When an individual becomes powerful, such as Cardinal Wolsey or Thomas Cromwell.

57

Robert Aske

The gentryman who led the Pilgrimage of Grace in 1536.

58

Royal Council

A group of advisers chosen by the King and selected mainly from the nobility and Church. They provided guidance on policy, as well as handling routine matters of state.

59

Royal Finance

The money that came in (taxes) and went out (spending on wars, ships etc.) that was used by the King

60

Royal Household

A mixed membership of nobles and servants ensured that the king was provided with food, clothing and spiritual guidance. It also played an important role in government. In the rooms of the Royal Household, the king held audiences, met with advisers and made important decisions.

61

Sacrament

The Catholic Church has 7 sacraments, which are solemn and binding rites or beliefs associated with the sacrifice Jesus made: Baptism, Eucharist, Penance, Anointing of the Sick, Holy Orders, and Matrimony.

62

Self made

A self made man or woman did not inherit anything of value - they rose themselves up in social status through their own hard work.

63

Sovereign

King or queen

64

Succession

Who will come next after a King or Queen dies - who will succeed them?

65

Thomas Cranmer

The first protestant Archbishop of Canterbury

66

Thomas Cromwell

King Henry VIII's chief adviser after the fall of Wolsey.

67

Thomas More

A close friend and adviser to Henry VIII. More was Lord High Chancellor of England but was exeuted for refusing to swear the Oath of Supremacy (because it said that Henry was the head of the Church of England and that his marriage to Catherine of Aragon was illegitimate).

68

Thomas Wolsey

The chief adviser to Henry VIII at the start of his reign. Wolsey was so rich and powerful, he was known as the 'alter rex'

69

Treasury

Where money was kept and the Royal Finances were calculated

70

Treaty of London (1518)

A peace treaty negotiated and organised by Wolsey in London. It made Henry the centre of attention and brought him respect.

71

Tudor

The family that took the throne in 1485 after Henry VII killed Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth Field. The tudors continued to reign until the death of Elizabeth I in 1603.