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role of local community in law enforcement c1000-c1500 (anglo-saxon, norman, and later medieval england)

tithings, hue and cry, parish constable


role of authorities and local communities in c1500 - c1700

town watchmen


The role of the authorities and local communities in law enforcement c1700-c1900

work of the Fielding brothers. The development of police forces and the beginning of CID


The role of the authorities and local communities in law enforcement c1900–present

the development of Neighbourhood Watch. Changes within the police force: increasing specialisation, use of science and technology and the move towards prevention


who were the bow street runners established by and when?

john + henry fielding in 1749


how many bow street runners were there to start off with? how many were there in 1800?

6 to start off with, 68 by 1800


why were the bow street runners more effective than town constables and night watchmen?

they were trained, payed, and had better equipment


why were people opposed to the idea of a police force?

they believed it would threaten freedom - people thought the government would use the police force to force people to do what they wanted. people thought the police would be busy-bodies and would pry into people's businesses. however the main opposition was the increased tax that would be required to pay for the police force.


why was a police force set up?

crime rates were on the rise, an old systems with constables and JPs were no longer adequate, especially with the massive industrial, agricultural and population changes at the time. events such as the Peterloo Massacre in 1819 showed the weaknesses of relying on the army to deal with public protests


which Act set up the metropolitan police force in central london?

the 1829 metropolitan police act


how many men were there in the police force by 1882?

11700 (compared with 3200 at start)


which four acts led to the extension of the police force within London and across the whole of england and wales?

1835 Municipal Corporations Act
1839 metropolitan police act
1839 county police act
1856 county and borough police act


what did the 1835 municipal corporations act do?

gave towns outside of london the power to set up their own police force


what did the 1839 metropolitan police act do?

it extended he area covered by the metropolitan police to a 15 mile radius from the centre


what did the 1839 county police act do?

gave each county the power to set up their own police force


what did the 1856 county and borough police act do?

made it compulsory for all towns and counties in england to set up a proper full-time, paid police force


what were the entry requirements for the early police forces?

constables were expected to be young men, over 5'7" tall and able to read and write


how did parish constables represent collective responsibility

they meant that responsibility for the day to day maintenance of law and order still lay with local communities. The Parish Constable was appointed by the JP for a year. The post was unpaid and done in addition to the person’s usual day job. They were usually local tradesmen or farmers, which meant that communities were 'policing' themselves. Local people were duty bound to help the Constable if he requested it, keeping the community responsible for enforcing law and order.