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Flashcards in Crime - Functionalism Deck (17):
1

Claim 1

According to A. K. Cohen, the explanation for crime lies within status frustration.

2

According to A. K. Cohen, the explanation for crime lies within status frustration. Reason

This is because the w/c become frustrated by the fact they can't achieve goals within education.

3

According to A. K. Cohen, the explanation for crime lies within status frustration. Example

They form delinquent subcultures and make up their on set of achievable goals. This replace middle class values with their own.

4

According to A. K. Cohen, the explanation for crime lies within status frustration. Evaluate

This means that crime is a group activity as members gain status through theft, vandalism and truancy.

5

According to A. K. Cohen, the explanation for crime lies within status frustration. Counter

Chambliss argues that Cohen's theory is too focused on w/c and that in reality the m/c get away with more crimes and have laws to protect them. 70% more drunken crimes reported in w/c areas but police were more focused there.

6

Claim 2

Cloward and Ohlin suggest some members of the working class have easier access to become criminals than others.

7

Cloward and Ohlin suggest some members of the working class have easier access to become criminals than others. Reason (subculture 1)

Criminal; provide youths with an apprenticeship for a career in utilitarian crimes. Arise in areas with longstanding and stable criminal culture with an established hierarchy or professional adult crime.

8

Cloward and Ohlin suggest some members of the working class have easier access to become criminals than others. Reason 2 (subculture 2)l

Conflict; areas of high population turnover. High levels of social disorganisation and prevents a stable professional criminal network developing. Only illegitimate opportunities are within loosely organised gangs.

9

Cloward and Ohlin suggest some members of the working class have easier access to become criminals than others. Reason 2 (subculture 3)

Retreatist; not everyone who aspires to be professional criminals becomes one. Many turn to subculture based on illegal drug use.

10

Claim 3

Merton developed the use of "anomie" to describe the imbalance between cultural goals and institutionalised means.

11

Merton developed the use of "anomie" to describe the imbalance between cultural goals and institutionalised means. Reason 3

An imbalanced society produces anomie - there is a strain or tension between goals and means, producing unsatisfied aspirations.

12

Merton developed the use of "anomie" to describe the imbalance between cultural goals and institutionalised means. Example 3

These experiences lead to innovative responses - commitment to cultural goals stays strong but commitment to legitimate means weakens.

13

Merton developed the use of "anomie" to describe the imbalance between cultural goals and institutionalised means. Evaluate 3

Crime is a result of this mentality eg Census Bureau found that as income inequality rises, so does property crime rate.

14

Merton developed the use of "anomie" to describe the imbalance between cultural goals and institutionalised means. Counter

Box; release from social control causes crime. When people are released from direct control they're more likely to commit crime as they see unfairness in the system.

15

Conclusion

Crime is due to status frustration amongst w/c and more opportunities. But it is inevitable.

16

Conclusion (Durkheim)

Crime can be positive; marks the extremes of behaviour and acts as a publicity function, sets boundaries, reflects wishes of the population and legitimises social change, strengthens bonds and acts as a safety valve and as a warning device.

17

Intro

Functionalists argue that a "healthy society" is characterised by a high degree of value consensus. They see institutions eg school as crucial for socialising kids into norms and values. Crime is dysfunctional; it occurs when people aren't properly socialised into norms and values.