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Flashcards in Media - Ownership And Control Deck (17):

What does Bagdikian argue? (Intro 2)

Increasing concentration of media means less people own it. In 1983, 50 corps controlled it in USA, by 2004, it was down to just 7.


Pluralism claim

The media provides a range of views that reflect the diversity of society, as well as creating a politically literate nation.


Pluralist reason

This means that there is something to watch for all individuals.


Pluralist example

In the 1960s there were 4 TV channels and now there are 1000s.


Pluralist evaluate

This means that the audience control the media. With the increase in technology, consumers can access many different types of media through many different technologies. Therefore they hold the power in which media to access.


Pluralist counter

Murdock and Golding; power lies with this who own and control media as they decide what is made available and at what prices, thus excluding poorer people.


Marxism claim

The process of media concentration has allowed the media to be controlled by a small proportion of media owners; they directly control it.


Marxism reason

This means that owners can use media to control and manipulate media output and audiences to benefit themselves.


Marxism example

Ex Italian prime minister, Silvio Berlosconi owned 3 TV channels that had an audience figure of 40% of the Italian population. He used this media outlet to help him win the election in 1994.


Marxism evaluate

Because media owners have the economic power to own the organisations which produce media content, they have ability to influence and control its ideological output. The media contributes to the transmission of ruling class ideology.


Marxism counter

Neophiliacs; those who adopt the use of new media suggest the rise in new digital media, the Internet and citizen journalism undermines the influence and control of media owners, giving more power to the masses.


Neo Marxism claim

Although media professionals control the media, it still benefits the ruling class.


Neo Marxism reason

This is because media professionals are socialised (through media, religion, education) into the same values as media owners. They bring these values to work with them.


Neo Marxism example

GUMG found most journalists are white, middle class makes and due to their socialisation produce content supporting capitalism.


Neo Marxism evaluate

Media owners trust the professionals they hire to produce content which will support their ideas and maintain "status quo". Although media owners are under the ideological influence of the owners, they still themselves control what goes into the media.


Neo Marxism counter

Yelland argues neo Marxism underestimates the true power of media owners. They hire professionals and fire them for stepping out of line. The Sun journalists; "What would Rupert think?"


Define media (intro)

McCullagh- the means through which content, whether fact or fiction, is produced by organisations and transmitted to and received by an audience.