Criminal subcultures - crime and deviance Flashcards Preview

SOCIOLOGY YEAR 1 > Criminal subcultures - crime and deviance > Flashcards

Flashcards in Criminal subcultures - crime and deviance Deck (13):

Which study challenged Merton and questioned whether delinquency was directly motivated by the goals of mainstream culture?

Albert Cohen's 1955 study on delinquent boys


According to Cohen, what leads to cultural deprivation? (3)

- inequality
- little opportunity
- educational failure


Outline Cohen's theory of delinquent boys:

educational failure and limited opportunities for lower working class boys produces social frustrations. The boys turn to criminal activity to achieve a sense of success. Their goals change and a criminal subculture is born.


What are the three types of subculture (within illegitimate opportunity structure)?

1. the criminal subculture
2. the conflict subculture
3. the retreatist subculture


What times of crimes come under a criminal subculture?

organised crimes


What times of crimes come under a conflict subculture?

violent crime, petty crime


What times of crimes come under a retreatist subculture?

drug abuse


According to Miller, what are the three features of deviant subcultures?

1. toughness
2. smartness
3. excitement


Outline Matza's theory of drift

Male delinquents are not in opposition to mainstream norms and values. Instead, society has a strong moral grasp and delinquents are only occasional law breakers who are able to neutralise their actions when they do.


What are the techniques of neutralisation? (5)

- denial of responsibility
- denial of injury
- denial of victim
- condemnation
- appeal to higher loyalties


What are subterranean values?

Values that are not socially accepted


Outline Anderson's study of inner city poor black youths in the US

through the formation of street codes, these individuals actively resist their conditions of inequality and instead create their own group identity. Law enforcement agencies and mainstream culture fail to support them so they see themselves in opposition to the mainstream norms


Limitations of subcultural theories

- tends to focus on working class youth, exaggerating working class delinquent and ignoring crimes of the powerful
- ignores experiences of young females (both as criminals and victims)
- gender blindness