Flashcards in Criminal subcultures - crime and deviance Deck (13):
Which study challenged Merton and questioned whether delinquency was directly motivated by the goals of mainstream culture?
Albert Cohen's 1955 study on delinquent boys
According to Cohen, what leads to cultural deprivation? (3)
- little opportunity
- educational failure
Outline Cohen's theory of delinquent boys:
educational failure and limited opportunities for lower working class boys produces social frustrations. The boys turn to criminal activity to achieve a sense of success. Their goals change and a criminal subculture is born.
What are the three types of subculture (within illegitimate opportunity structure)?
1. the criminal subculture
2. the conflict subculture
3. the retreatist subculture
What times of crimes come under a criminal subculture?
What times of crimes come under a conflict subculture?
violent crime, petty crime
What times of crimes come under a retreatist subculture?
According to Miller, what are the three features of deviant subcultures?
Outline Matza's theory of drift
Male delinquents are not in opposition to mainstream norms and values. Instead, society has a strong moral grasp and delinquents are only occasional law breakers who are able to neutralise their actions when they do.
What are the techniques of neutralisation? (5)
- denial of responsibility
- denial of injury
- denial of victim
- appeal to higher loyalties
What are subterranean values?
Values that are not socially accepted
Outline Anderson's study of inner city poor black youths in the US
through the formation of street codes, these individuals actively resist their conditions of inequality and instead create their own group identity. Law enforcement agencies and mainstream culture fail to support them so they see themselves in opposition to the mainstream norms