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Fall 2017 > Cultural Anthropology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cultural Anthropology Deck (87)
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1

The study of the full scope of human diversity, past and present, and the application of that knowledge to help people of different backgrounds better understand one another. (page 8)

Anthropology

2

The belief that one's own culture or way of life is normal and natural; using one's own culture to evaluate and judge the practices and ideals of others. (page 9)

ethnocentrism

3

A primary research strategy in cultural anthropology involving living with a community of people over an extended period to better understand their lives. (page 10, 64)

ethnographic fieldwork

4

The use of four interrelated disciplines to study humanity: physical anthropology, archaeology, linguistic anthropology, and cultural anthropology. (page 12)

four-field approach

5

The anthropological commitment to consider the full scope of human life, including culture, biology, history, and language, across space and time. (page 12)

holism

6

The study of humans from a biological perspective, particularly focused on human evolution. (page 13)

physical anthropology

7

The study of the history of human evolution through the fossil record. (page 13)

paleoanthropology

8

The study of living nonhuman primates as well as primate fossils to better understand human evolution and early human behavior. (page 14)

primatology

9

The investigation of the human past by means of excavating and analyzing artifacts. (page 15)

archaeology

10

The reconstruction of human behavior in the distant past (before written records) through the examination of artifacts. (page 15)

prehistoric archaeology

11

The exploration of the more recent past through an examination of physical remains and artifacts as well as written or oral records. (page 16)

historic archaeology

12

The study of human language in the past and the present. (page 17)

linguistic anthropology

13

Those who analyze languages and their component parts. (page 17)

descriptive linguists

14

Those who study how language changes over time within a culture and how languages travel across cultures. (page 17)

historic linguists

15

Those who study language in its social and cultural contexts. (page 17)

sociolinguists

16

The study of people's communities, behaviors, beliefs, and institutions, including how people make meaning as they live, work, and play together. (page 18)

cultural anthropology

17

A key anthropological research strategy involving both participation in and observation of the daily life of the people being studied. (page 18, 72)

participant observation

18

The analysis and comparison of ethnographic data across cultures. (page 18, 81)

ethnology

19

The worldwide intensification of interactions and increased movement of money, people, goods, and ideas within and across national borders. (page 18)

globalization

20

The rapid innovation of communication and transportation technologies associated with globalization that transforms the way people think about space and time. (page 20)

time-space compression

21

The increasingly flexible strategies that corporations use to accumulate profits in an era of globalization, enabled by innovative communication and transportation technologies. (page 20)

flexible accumulation

22

The accelerated movement of people within and between countries. (page 21)

increasing migration

23

The unequal distribution of the benefits of globalization. (page 21)

uneven development

24

The dramatic transformations of economics, politics, and culture characteristic of contemporary globalization. (page 22)

rapid change

25

Changes to Earth's climate, including global warming produced primarily by increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases created by human activity such as burning fossil fuels and deforestation. (page 24)

climate change

26

A system of knowledge, beliefs, patterns of behavior, artifacts, and institutions that are created, learned, and shared by a group of people. (page 33)

culture

27

The process of learning culture. (page 34)

enculturation

28

Ideas or rules about how people should behave in particular situations or toward certain other people. (page 35)

norms

29

Fundamental beliefs about what is important, true, or beautiful, and what makes a good life. (page 37)

values

30

Anything that signifies something else. (page 37)

symbol