Human Biology: Test 3 (Chapters 12, 5, 6) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Human Biology: Test 3 (Chapters 12, 5, 6) Deck (13)
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Describe the path of urine and the function of each organ.

Pair of kidneys filter the blood, Pair of ureters funnels urine and the urethra expels the urine.


Name the parts of the nephron and the function of each part.

Glomerular Filtration: small molecules move from the glomerulus to the glomerulus capsule, Tubular Reabsorption: Nutrients and water move from the proximal convoluted tube into the blood, Tubular Secretion: Substances move from the blood into the distal convoluted tubule.


Why is it proper to associate glucose with the first two processes of urine formation and not the third process?

Glucose is good so it should be seen in step 1 and 2 but not 3 since that is the step to get rid of waste.


Describe a way the body maintains an acid-base balance.

The blood is buffered with carbonic acid and bicarbonate ions.


Differentiate between compact and spongy bone.

Spongy bone has space for marrow.
Compact bone is for strength.


What is the function of osteoclasts and why are they needed?

Osteoclasts destroy the bone and release the calcium that is stored in them.


Describe the process of endochondral ossification.

Osteoblasts fills in cartilage, compact bone is laid down, the long bones grow from a growth plate.


Describe the four steps of bone repair.

A large blood clot forms, fibrocartilage fills in the break, bony callus replaces the cartilage, and osteoclasts remodel the bone.


What are the characteristics of the three types of muscles?

Smooth muscle fibers are spindle-shaped cells, each with a nucleus and is involuntary, Cardiac muscle forms a heart wall and is involuntary, Skeletal muscle fibers are tubular and is voluntary.


Give an example to show how muscles work in antagonistic pairs.

Quadriceps extend your legs and hamstrings bend the legs.


Summarize the sliding filament model of the music contraction.

Every time a nervous impulse reaches a muscle fiber, it releases calcium.


What are some sources of energy for a muscle?

Glycogen, fat, blood glucose and plasma fatty acids.


Compare fast twitch and slow twitch muscles.

Fast twitch is light in color with few mitochondria, little or no myoglobin, and fewer blood vessels while slow twitch has many mitochondria, are dark in color, and contain myoglobin.