Human Biology: Test 4 (Chapter 13, 14, 16) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Human Biology: Test 4 (Chapter 13, 14, 16) Deck (16)
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1

What are the functions performed by the three types of neurons?

Sensory neurons take information from sensory receptors to the CNS, Interneurons occur within the CNS, motor neurons take information from the CNS to effectors.

2

What is an action potential and what are it’s two parts?

An action potential is a rapid change in polarity as the nerve impulse occurs, It’s two parts are depolarization and repolarization.

3

Explain the transmission of a nerve signal across a synapse.

When a neurotransmitter molecule is released from an axon it pulls into a synaptic cleft.

4

Name the three major parts of the brain.

Cerebrum, cerebellum, brainstem.

5

What are the association areas and what roles do they play?

It’s an area of the brain where we make sense of images and sounds.

6

Describe the various types of memory.

Short-term memory, long-term memory, skill memory.

7

Distinguish between somatic and automatic nervous systems.

The nerves in the somatic system serve the skin, skeletal muscles and tendons and is a voluntary system.
The automatic system regulates the activity of cardiac and smooth muscles and glands and it handles the involuntary movements.

8

Distinguish between exteroreceptors and interoreceptors.

Exteroreceptors detect stimuli from outside the body while interoreceptors detect internal stimuli.

9

What are three abnormalities from misshapen eyes?

Nearsighted, farsighted, astigmatism.

10

Which ear structures are involved in equilibrium?

The semicircular canals and the hair embedded cells in them.

11

What type of cell divisions produces gametes and why is it important?

Meiosis produces gametes and it is important because it produces half if the chromosomes.

12

Trace the path of sperm?

Testes produce sperm, mature in the epididymides, stored in the vasa deferential, enters urethra.

13

Name the organs of the females reproductive tract.

Egg that is produced by an ovary enters an oviduct, it leads to the lower end of the uterus and the cervix enters the vagina.

14

Describe the uterine cycle in a non-pregnant female

Menstruation, proliferative phase the uterus thickens, it continues to thicken and becomes vascular, if no pregnancy the cycle begins again.

15

Describe three birth control methods.

Oral contraceptive pills, barrier methods (condoms, diaphragms), Contraceptive implant and injections.

16

List the types of assistive reproductive technologies

Artificial Insemination by donor (AID), In Vitro fertilization ( IVF), Gamete Intrafallopian Transfer (GIFT), surrogate mothers, Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI).