Flashcards in Curvatures of the vertebral column Deck (41):
What segmental levels form the cervical curve?
What segmental levels form the lumbar curve?
T12 to L5
What is the traditional time of appearance of the cervical curve said to be?
during the last trimester in utero
What is the time during which the "adult" cervical curve is said to appear?
within the first year after birth
What developmental events are indicated in the formation of the adult cervical curve?
1. centers for vision and equilibrium will appear in the brain
2. musculature attaching the skull, cervical region, and upper thorax together develops
3. the head is held upright
4. the intervertebral disc height becomes greater anterior than posterior
At what age will the infant begin to hold the head erect?
usually between the third and fourth month after birth
What is the name given to the integration of visual an motor pathways associated wit holding the hear erect?
the righting reflex
What is the location for the apex of the cervical curve?
typically between C4 and C5
What is the location for the cervical kyphosis?
between occiput and C1
What is the vertebral relationship between the cervcial curve and the cervical enlargement?
cervical curve C2-T1; cervical enlargement C3-T1
What is the time of appearance of the lumbar curve?
between 12 and 18 months after birth
What infant activities are associated with the development of the lumbar curve?
crawling and walking
What developmental events are indicated in the formation the adult lumbar curve?
1. crawling will cause the abdomen to put tension the lumbar region and pulls it forward
2. muscle development is promoted to compensate for the swayback of the lumbars
3. intervertebral disc height will become greater anterior compared to posterior
4. walking will further promote muscle and intervertebral development
Which sense is a requirement for holding the head erect, standing, sitting, and walking?
What is the gender bias associated with lumbar curve convexity?
females hav a greater convexity of the lumbar curve
What is the vertebral relationship between the lumbar curve and the lumbar enlargement?
Lumbar curve T12-L5; lumbar enlargement T9-T12
What is the formation of the lateral curve often correlated with?
faster development of the muscles on the side of handedness
What is the time of appearance of the lateral curves?
they appear after 6 years old
Which lateral curves are best developed?
thoracic or dorsal, and lumbar
What is the relationship between curve direction and handedness?
a right-handed person has a high probability for a right thoracic, left lumbar curve combination
What is the incidence of a right thoracic, left lumbar curve combination in the population?
about 80% of the population demonstrates this
What generic names identified abnormal curves of the vertebral column?
lordosis, kyphosis, scoliosis
What is the definition lordosis?
a forward bending condition
What is the definition kyphosis?
a humpback or hunchback condition
What is the definition of scoliosis?
a warped or crooked condition
What is the direction of the curve deviation in lordosis?
to the anterior
What is the direction of the curve deviation in scoliosis?
to the side (it is a lateral curve deviation)
What clinical abnormal curvatures of the vertebral column were stressed in class?
military neck, humpback or hunch back, and swayback
What is military neck?
a decreased anterior curve in the cervical region, a straight neck
What is humpback or hunchback?
an increased posterior curve in the thoracic region
What is swayback?
an increased anterior curve in the lumbar region
What is classic classification of military neck?
What is a classic classification of humpback?
What is classic classification of sway back?
What does the use of the term lordotic try to imply?
a normal cervical and normal lumbar anterior curve
What does the use of the term kyphotic try to imply?
a normal thoracic or dorsal and normal pelvic or sacrococcygeal posterior curve
What does the term hyperlordotic infer?
an increase in the anterior curve of the cervical or lumbar region
What does the term hypolordotic infer?
a decrease in the anterior curve of the cervical or lumbar region
What are the curve classification for military neck?
kyphosis or hypolordotic curve
What are the curve classification for humpback or hunchback?
a kyphosis or hyperkyphotic curve