CV Pharmacology Final Exam Flashcards Preview

4th Quarter > CV Pharmacology Final Exam > Flashcards

Flashcards in CV Pharmacology Final Exam Deck (161)
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1

Describe pericardial restraint.

A change in volume or pressure on one side of the heart can influence pressure and volume on the other side.

2

Name 3 symptoms of acute pericarditis.

1. chest pain
2. pericardial friction rub
3. ECG changes
4. deep insp. worsens pain
5. sitting forward relives pain

3

An acute influx of as little as _____ of fluid into the pericardium can produce symptomatic cardiac tamponade.

100 ml

4

Name 2 signs that occur during the respiratory cycle consistent with cardiac tamponade that signals ventricular dysynchrony.

1. Kussmauls sign(distention of jugular veins)
2. Pulsus paradoxus( decrease in SBP > 10 mmHg during insp.)

5

In contrast to skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle requires _____ to contract.

calcium

6

Describe the Frank-Starling Law of the heart.

The ability of the heart to change its force of contraction and therefore stroke volume in response to changes in venous return(^venous return -> ^ventricular filling -> ^preload)

7

Name the contractile unit of the cardiac myocyte, consisting of I and A bands.

Sarcomere

8

Which protein troponin produces the conformational change exposing the specific myosin binding site on actin?

Calcium -> troponin C

9

Which semilunar valve is often damaged by high pressure _____? Which AV valve is subject to abuse d/t high pressure?

-Aortic
-Mitral

10

Which main coronary artery supplies the AV node in 90% of the population, and the SA node in 60% of the population?

Right main coronary artery

11

What defines the time available for coronary vascular perfusion?

Diastole

12

What is the equations for coronary perfusion pressure(CPP)?

CPP=DBP - PCWP

13

What is the most potent endogenous vasodilator?

Adenosine

14

Does Nitric Oxide case (vasodilation or vasoconstriction), and does it (inhibit or promote) platelet aggregation and adhesion?

-vasodilation
-inhibits

15

Pressure volume loops are 2D plots on continuous pressure vs. volume in the RV or LV?

LV

16

What is the "normal" CVP?

2 - 8 mmHg

17

What medications should be used for a Tamponade induction?

1. ketamine(increases HR, contractility and SVR)
2. BZD
3. fentanyl
4. careful titration of agent

REMEBER: THE COMBO OF VASODILATION AND MYOCARDIAL DEPRESSION FROM THE ANESTHETIC, IN ADDITOIN TO DECREASED VENOUS RETURN FROM PPV CAN PRODUCE LIFE-THREATENING HYPOTENSION.

18

What two structures secrete lubricating fluid into the parricidal space?

1. Parietal pericardium
2. Visceral pericardium

19

If perfusion pressure falls by ____% or below the physiological pressure limits, the auto regulatory mechanisms begin to fail and blood flow fails

> 30%

20

When damage to the endothelium occurs, it produces no ______ and less _____.

-nitric oxide
-prostacyclin

21

What is the most ominous sign of CAD?

USA that occurs during rest is the most ominous sign of CAD. USA is poorly controlled by medications at this point and carries a significant risk of MI(Valley note)

22

"Critical stenosis" is a ____% decrease in diameter of a large distributing artery.

75%

23

What identifies ischemia intraoperatively?(Valley questions)

ST segment depression of > than 1 mm provides evidence of ischemia

24

The most important factor and primary determinant of myocardial O2 consumption is?

HR

25

What is the most important interventions to prevent or minimize ischemia?

avoid tachycardia

26

Cardiac pump function is affected by the SNS and the PNS in what 3 ways?

1. changing the strength of contraction
2. changing the heart rate
3. modulation of coronary blood flow

27

What part of the SNS increases chronotropy and isotropy(cardiac accelerator fibers)?

T1-T4

28

What are the cardiovascular reflexes of a Valsalva maneuver?

decreased HR, contractility, vasodilation

29

What are the cardiovascular reflexes of a Baroreceptor reflex?

decreased HR, contractility, vasodilation

30

What are the cardiovascular reflexes of a Oculocardiac reflex?

bradycardia, systole, dysrhythmias, hypotension