Flashcards in Pain Management Quiz #1 Deck (50)
An unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage or described in terms of such damage.
How the patient perceives it.
What is defined as acute pain?
Pain that has been occurring less than 3 - 6 months.
What is defined as chronic pain?
Pain that has been occurring for greater than 3 - 6 months. Once pain reaches the chronic phase it is extremely hard to stop.
What is nociceptive pain and what are the two classifications of it?
Associated with the stimulation of specific nociceptors and can be either somatic or visceral.
What is somatic pain?
Somatic pain is a type of nociceptive pain that has an identifiable locus as a result of tissue damage causing the release of chemicals from injured cells that mediate pain.
What are 3 characteristics of somatic pain?
1. well localized
2. sharp in nature
3. generally hurts at the point or area of stimulus
What is visceral pain?
Visceral pain is a type of nociceptive pain that is diffuse and can be referred to another area. Usually secondary to a disease process.
What is visceral pain often associated with and what often accompanies it?
It is often associated with distention of an organ capsule or the obstruction of a hollow viscus. It is often accompanied with autonomic reflexes such as N/V/D.
What are 4 descriptions often given by those suffering with visceral pain?
4. vague in nature
It radiates and its referred pain.
What are two forms of non-nociceptive pain?
1. Neuropathic pain
2. Idiopathic or Psychogenic pain
What causes Neuropathic pain?
caused by damage to peripheral or central neural structures resulting in ABNORMAL processing or painful stimuli. For example diabetic neuropathy.
How is neuropathic pain often described?
4. "pins and needles"
6. "numb sensation"
What is Idiopathic or Psychogenic pain associated with?
associated with chronic pain states and is used to describe pain that has no apparent cause. When neither nociceptive or non-nociceptive mechanisms can be identified as a cause for pain, and psychological symptoms are commonly present.
What is algesia?
increased sensitivity to pain(prostaglandins increase the sensitivity to pain)
What is alogogenic?
What is allodynia?
a normally non harmful stimulus is perceived as painful
What is analgesia?
the absence of pain in the presence of a normally painful stimulus.
What is dysesthesia?
an unpleasant painful abnormal sensation, whether evoked or spontaneous.(not necessarily along the nerve structure)
What is hyperalgesia?
a heightened response to a normally painful stimulus.(IV start exaggerated response)
What is neuralgia?
pain in the distribution of a peripheral nerve.(femoral nerve dinged)
What is neuropathy?
an abnormal disturbance in the function of a nerve.(***FUNCTION OF A NERVE****)
What is paresthesia?
an abnormal sensation, whether spontaneous or evoked("FUNNY BONE", "SHOCK-LIKE" SENSATION along the nerve structure).
Somatic nociceptive pain is defined by 4 processes what are they?
What is the definition of transduction as related to somatic nociceptive pain?
the transformation of a noxious stimulus(chemical, mechanical or thermal) into an action potential.
What is the definition of transmission as related to somatic nociceptive pain?
the process by which an action potential is conducted from the periphery to the CNS.
What is the definition of perception as related to somatic nociceptive pain?
occurs once the signal is recognized by various areas of the brain, including the amygdala, somatosensory areas of the cortex, hypothalamus, and the anterior cingulate cortex.
What is the definition of modulation as related to somatic nociceptive pain?
involves altering neural afferent activity along the pain pathway; it can SUPPRESS or ENHANCE pain signals.
Peripheral nociceptors that conduct stimuli to the dorsal horn by transduction are categorized according to morphology. What are the three characteristics of morphology?
3. conduction velocity
What are the characteristics of transduction as related to myelinated A-delta fibers?
primary afferent neurons that conduct action potentials at velocities between 6 and 30 m/sec and elicit fast-sharp pain. They respond only to MECHANICS AND CHEMICAL PAIN.