Flashcards in Pathophysiology Exam #1 Deck (343)
What are the 6 functions of the cardiovascular system?
• Deliver sufficient oxygen to tissues to meet metabolic demand
• Transport metabolic waste products (carbon dioxide) from tissues and delivery to lungs for elimination
• Transport of metabolic waste products to the kidneys for elimination
• Supply of nutrients absorbed from GI tract to the tissues
• Regulation of body temperature
• Transport of hormones and other substances that regulate cellular function
How dose the CV system regulate temperature?
o vasoconstriction and dilation
In what way does the heart act as an endocrine organ?
• Heart is also an endocrine organ; which secretes:
o atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)
o brain natriuretic peptide (BNP)
The heart is located within the _____;
the mediastinum is located between the _____;
posterior to the _____ and anterior to the _____ _____
From an anterior prospective, you can visual the _____ side of the heart more than the _____ side
When the aorta pierces the diaphragm, it changes
from the _____ aorta to the _____ aorta
The heart is enclosed within the _____ cavity.
The lungs are enclosed with the _____ cavity.
The only thing separating the parietal pericardium with the parietal pleural (these are both the out layer
membranes of the heart and lungs) is this little fibrous band called the?
FIBROUS PERICARDIUM; The heart and lungs sit very close together, so you can see why when we make changes to our ventilators (positive pressure ventilation) how that can have CV implications
Where is the right auricle located and what is its function?
-connected to(muscle flap) the right atrium
-It collects deoxygenated blood from the bloodstream and moves it into the heart's right ventricle
R coronary artery that immediately branches off the _____ and runs thru what is called the _____ _____; which lies between?
-right and left ventricle
Then that R coronary artery continues on to the posterior aspect of the heart
Which coronary arteries perfuses the majority of the myocardium?
Left anterior descending artery(LAD)
Does the superior/inferior vena cava bring oxygenated blood back to the heart or deoxygenated?
Superior vena cava bringing deoxygenated blood from the upper part of the body and inferior from the lower
Which brings oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart, the pulmonary veins or the pulmonary arteries?
-Pulmonary arteries bringing deoxygenated blood to the lungs
-Pulmonary veins bringing oxygenated blood
from the lungs
-Away (from the heart) = artery; back to the heart = veins
*pulmonary circulation opposite of systemic circulation*
In most people, that coronary artery descends down in the sulcus between the L and R ventricles posteriorly;
that is called the _______ _____ _____.
-POSTERIOR DESCENDING ARTERY(PDA)
-R coronary artery: it descends thru the coronary sulcus and then continues around the posterior aspect of the heart
The coronary veins eventually join back together to form the _____ _____ _____. This structure then empties into the _____ _____, which carries _____ blood.
-all the veins eventually join back together to form the
GREAT CARDIAC VEIN
-That great cardiac vein will empty into the CORONARY SINUS; the coronary sinus empties all it’s deoxygenated blood
What are two factors that are responsible for a decrease in PaO2 on the left side of the heart as compared tot he pulmonary capillaries?
So you have two factors that decrease PaO2: THEBESIAN VEINS and the BRONCHIAL CIRCULATION
How are the Thebesian veins responsible for a decrease of PaO2 on the left heart?
-If the thebesian veins are permeating thru the myocardium and emptying deoxygenated blood into the 4 chambers of the heart; that decreases PaO2 on the L side
o That’s one of the reasons why the PaO2 in the L side of the heart is less than the PaO2 at the actual pulmonary capillaries
What are the Thebesian veins?
Tiny veins that permeate the walls of the myocardium and
empty their deoxygenated blood to all four chambers of the heart
What are the 2 types of pulmonary circulation?
There are two types of pulm circulation:
§ There is the pulm circulation that is picking up freshly
oxygenated from the alveoli
§ There is also the bronchial circulation; we want to think
about the blood being delivered to the conductive airways
How is bronchial circulation responsible for a decrease of PaO2 on the left heart?
There is also the bronchial circulation; we want to think
about the blood being delivered to the conductive airways
v like the tracheal-bronchial tree
v where gas exchange doesn’t actually occur but those tissues still need to be perfused
v the deoxygenated blood from those tissues is returned back to the L side of the heart; which further decreases the PaO2
What are the three layers of the heart in order from outside to inside?
EPI -> MYO ->ENDO; EPI -> MYO ->ENDO;
What are the characteristics of the epicardium?
• Outer layer you have the epicardium or the visceral
pericardium (same thing)
o inseparable from the heart
o composed of squamous epithelial cells and
connective tissues and fat
What are the characteristics of the myocardium?
• Then you have the myocardium; the muscle cells
o The myocardium or muscle thickness is based
upon which chamber of the heart you look at:
§ L ventricle -> R ventricle -> L atrium -> R atrium (thickest to thinnest)
o When people get cardiomyopathies, this is the
layer that hypertrophies
These finger-like projections are found in all 4 chambers of the heart but especially the left ventricle. They are responsible for creating turbulence of blood flow within the chambers; keeps the blood from clotting. Another theory is they also if the chamber of the heart
was smooth, when it contracted, that smooth
wall would actually collapse in on itself; gives the walls a structure/ function that does not allow them to collapse onto itself during contraction
The pericardial cavity or the pericardium is made up of two structures what are they?
What is the function of the fibrous pericardium, and what is it attached to?
Fibrous pericardium is on the outer portion of the parietal pericardium and that is connective tissues that anchors the heart to adjacent structures
What are the two parts of the serious pericardium?
The parietal pericardium and the visceral pericardium
What is the function of the parietal pericardium?
It is the outside layer of the serious pericardium that the fibrous pericardium attaches to.
o Both the visceral and parietal pericardium are SEROUS pericardium
§ meaning they secrete a serous fluid into the pericardial cavity
§ normally there is only 15-20 mL of serous fluid in the pericardial cavity