Pathophysiology Exam #2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Pathophysiology Exam #2 Deck (141)
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1

What percentage of body weight does blood make up?

8%

2

What percentage of blood does the plasma make up?

55%

3

What percentage of blood does the formed elements make up?

45%

4

Most of the plasma is formed of ____?

Water, 91%

5

Proteins make up what percentage of plasma?

7%

6

What is the main contributor to the protein of the blood?

Albumin

7

Other solutes such as gases, ions, nutrients and waste make up what percentage of plasma?

2%

8

When we measure the "formed elements" in the blood we are measuring its?

hematocrit

9

Most of the formed elements are made up of these ____?

RBCs

10

What is the normal range of RBCs in the blood?

4.2 - 6.2 million/cubic millmeter(or microliter[microl])

11

What are the two main functions of RBCs?

Transport oxygen to the tissues via iron molecules
Transport carbon dioxide to lungs to be exhaled(CO2 is partially dissolved in the cytoplasm of RBCs and partially bound with hemoglobin

12

Oxygen binds with the ___ portion of hemoglobin, while carbon dioxide binds with the ___ portion of hemoglobin.

-heme
-globin

13

Red Blood Cells contains this enzyme that is responsible for?

-carbonic anhydrase(metabolizes the reaction of CO2 and Water)
-a weak acid that allows for carbon dioxide to be transported in the cytoplasm of RBCs
CO2 + H2O H2CO3 H+ HCO3-

14

How does hemoglobin serve as a powerful acid-base buffer to regulate the pH of body fluids?

By binding to excess H+ ions if there is an increase in them....if there is a deficit of H+ ions then Hgb will release H+ increasing the concentration of them in body fluids

15

When carbonic anhydrase is present with CO2 and water, what will be formed?

-Carbonic acid(H2CO3)
-carbonic acid can be formed of water/CO2 without carbonic anhydrase, but it happens much slower

16

Carbonic anhydrase increases the reaction between CO2 and Water about _____ times.

5000

17

Carbonic acid is a weak acid that disassociates weakly...forming what?

-H+
-HCO3-

18

CO2 + H2O H2CO3 H+ HCO3-

These elements can go either way either left to right or right to left. What is different when H+ and HCO2 become carbonic acid as opposed with CO2+H2) becomes carbonic acid?

H+ and HCO2 do not need carbonic anhydrase to form carbonic acid

19

CO2 + H2O H2CO3 H+ HCO3-

What determines which way the reaction takes place?

The number of reactants on each side. For example...if CO2 increases it is going to combine with water with CA and become H2CO3....if HCO2 increases it drives the reaction the other way.

20

What is the all important Acid Base formula?

CO2 + H2O H2CO3 H+ HCO3-

21

What is the normal RBC in men?

5,200,000/mm^3(or microl)

22

What is the normal RBC in women?

4,700,000/mm^3(or microl)

23

What are two factors why there is a higher RBC in men than women?

-men have higher testosterone which stimulates RBC
-women have menses

24

What is the normal percentage of the formed elements(Hct.) part of the total blood volume?

38 - 52%

25

What is the normal hemoglobin?

12 -18 gm/dl

1 dl = 100 ml

26

Each GRAM of hemoglobin can bind to and transport how many mls of oxygen?

1.34 ml

27

RBCs are produced in different places during our lifetime, where are RBCs produced during the prenatal period(3)?

-liver
-spleen
-lymph nodes

28

RBCs are produced in different places during our lifetime, where are RBCs produced from birth until about 5 years old?

shifts to all bone morrow

29

RBCs are produced in different places during our lifetime, where are RBCs produced after 20 years of age(5)?

Primarily in the bone marrow of the :
-vertebrae
-sternum
-ilium
with some being produced in the:
-proximal humerus and the tibia

30

What is the definition of erythropoiesis?

production of RBCs