cytokines and other things cells release Flashcards Preview

Pathology > cytokines and other things cells release > Flashcards

Flashcards in cytokines and other things cells release Deck (72):
1

IL-1 [Function, source, cells it affects]

Functions: major anti-inflammatory cytokine with TNF
1. activates endothelial cell retraction
2. activate endothelial cells to produce enzymes of matrix remodeling, induce adhesion molec
3. systemic acute phase response to inflammation

Source: macrophages, adipocytes
Cells it affects: endothelium,

2

IL-2 [Function, source, cells it affects]

Functions:
1. Lymphocyte growth and differentiation
Source:
Cells it affects:

3

IL-3 [Function, source, cells it affects]

Functions:
1. stimulates hematopoiesis
Source:
Cells it affects:

4

IL-4 [Function, source, cells it affects]

Functions:
1. lymphocyte growth and differentiation
2. fibrogenic cytokine
3. modulates inflammatory response [TH2]
Source:

Cells it affects: B and T cells

5

IL-5 [Function, source, cells it affects]

Functions:
Source:
Cells it affects:

6

IL-6 [Function, source, cells it affects]

Functions:
1. involved in cachexia [may be secreted by tumor or in response to tumor]

Source: adipocytes
Cells it affects:

7

IL-8 [Function, source, cells it affects]

Functions:
1. chemotactic agent for neutrophils
2. stimulates histamine release from mast cells
Source:
Cells it affects:

8

IL-10 [Function, source, cells it affects]

Functions:
Source:
Cells it affects:

9

IL12 [Function, source, cells it affects]

Functions:
Source:
Cells it affects:

10

IL-13 [Function, source, cells it affects]

Functions:
Source:
Cells it affects:

11

Il-15 and 18 [Function, source, cells it affects]

Functions:
Source:
Cells it affects:

12

IFN-gamma [Function, source, cells it affects]

Functions:
Source:
Cells it affects:

13

TGF-Beta [Function, source, cells it affects]

Functions:
1. negative regulation of inflammatory response
2. part of early wound healing: stimulates proliferation/migration/matrix production [fibrogenic]
3. chemoattractant for inflammatory cells
Source: lymphocytes, macrophages, platelets

14

TNF-alpha [Function, source, cells it affects]

Functions: Major anti-inflammatory cytokine
1. Overproduction leads to cachexia [secreted by tumor or in response to tumor]
2. activates endothelial cell retraction
3. activate endothelial cells to produce enzymes of matrix remodeling, induce adhesion molec
4. systemic acute phase response to inflammation

Source: macrophages [other functions], adipocytes [cachexia]
Cells it affects:

15

GM-CSF [Function, source, cells it Affects]

Functions:
1. stimulates hematopoiesis
Source:
Cells it affects:

16

MIP-1 [Function, source, cells it affects]

Functions:
Source:
Cells it affects:

17

MCP-1 [Function, source, cells it affects]

Functions:
Source:
Cells it affects:

18

Leptin [Function, source]

Functions: decreases appetite [anorexigenic], increases energy expenditure
Source: adipocytes

19

Adiponectin [Function, source]

Functions:
1. directs fat to muscle and away from liver
2. decreases glucose production in liver

Source: adipocytes
Cells it affects:

20

Effect of leptin deficiency or disruption in leptin signaling pathway

Get overeating and weight gain

21

Ghrelin [Function, source]

Functions: increase food intake [orexigenic]
Source: stomach

22

Peptide YY [PYY] [Function, source]

Functions: decrease appetite [anorexigenic]
Source: endocrine cells of ileum/colon

23

Proteolysis Inducting Factor [PIF] [function, marker in what patients]

1. involved in cachexia

secreted in urine of patients with pancreatic cancer and cachexia

24

Lipid-mobilizing factor [LMF] [function]

1. Involved in cachexia
2. increases fatty acid oxidation
3. increases pro-inflammatory cytokines

25

C reactive protein - what disease is it high in?

obesity

26

Vitamin A [water vs fat soluble, source, functions]

- fat soluble
- source: beta carotene in yellow + green leafy veggies, vit A in animal products [liver]
- functions: vision, cellular differentiation

27

3 Effects of Vitamin A deficiency

1. blindness
2. immune deficiency
3. squamouse metaplasia
-- lacrimal glands
-- respiratory tract
-- urinary tract

28

Vitamin C [water vs fat soluble, source, functions]

- water soluble
- source: citrus fruit, veggies, milk, fish
- functions: collagen synthesis, antioxidant

29

Disease of Vitamin C deficiency?

- scurvy

30

Vitamin D[water vs fat soluble, source, functions]

- fat soluble
- source: photoconversion in skin, diet
- function: calcium regulation

31

3 Diseases of Vitamin D Deficiency?

- rickets [in kids]
- osteomalacia [in adults]
- hypocalcemic tetany

32

Prostaglandin E2 [function]

function:
1. hyperalgesic [makes skin hypersensitive to pain]
2. vasodilation

33

Major Basic Protein [MBP] [what process is it involved in in neutrophil]

- involved in oxygen independent bactericidal mechanism of neutrophils

34

Leukotrienes C4, D4, E4 [function]

Function
1. increase vascular permeability
2. vasoconstriction

35

Leukotriene B4 [function, source]

Function
1. powerful chemotactic agent for neutrophils
Source: leukocytes [

36

What is effect of Protein C or S deficiency?

hypercoagulation

37

What is factor V leiden? What is effect?

- alternate form of factor V
- can't be inactivated by protein C
- hypercoagulation

38

PGDF [platelet derived growth factor] [function, source]

Function: part of early wound healing
1. miotogenic
-- formation fibroblasts, smooth muscle, connective tissue [matrix]
Source: platelets, endothelial cells

39

Fibronectin [function]

Functions: in early wound healing:
1. helps fibroblasts bind fibrin to form fibrin clot
2. Promotes phagocytosis

40

Metalloproteinase [Function]

Function
1. aids in remodelling cellular matrix

41

What is effect of antithrombin III deficiency?

hypercoagulation

42

Hemosiderin [what is it, where, disease]

- in liver
- accumulates in large amount in hereditary hemochromatosis
- may cause irreversible injury

43

What disease associated wtih intranuclear protein lamin A?

Hutchinson-gilford progeria

44

What is superoxide dismutase [SOD]? Effect of knockout anti-SOD age-1 gene?

- decreases ROS
- knockout will have increased lifespan

45

MTOR pathway and aging/caloric restriction [function of pathway]

- regulates cell growth, facilitates replicative senescence
- inhibited by caloric restriction
- inhibition may increase life span

46

AGE protein [function, relation to aging diseases]

- increases ROS, upregulates inflammation
- related to arthritis, atherosclerosis

47

sirtruin [what is it? what activates it?]

- sirtruin = anti-aging protein
- reserveratrol in red wine activates it

48

Histamine [Function, Source]

Functions: preformed mediator
1. one of first mediators of inflammatory response
2. vasodilation
3. increased vascular permeability
4. activates endothelial cell contraction

Source: mostly mast cells [+ basophils + platelets]

49

PECAM [what does it stand for? Involved in what?]

- platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule
- involved in migration of neutrophils

50

C5a [Function]

Functions:
1. chemotactic for neutrophils [ + other leukocytes]
2. stimulates mast cells to release histamine
3. increases vascular permeability
Cells it affects:

51

C3a [Function]

Functions:
1. stimulates mast cells to release histamine
2. increases vascular permeability

52

MPO [myeloperoxidase] [function in neutrophil]

- in oxygen dependent bactericidal mech of neutrophils
- creates HOCL- that kills bacteria

53

Thromboxane A2 [Function, source]

Function
1. vasoconstriction
2. promotes platelet aggregation
Source: platelets

54

Platelet Activating Factor [mediated by what antibody, functions, source]

Function: IgE mediated!
1. platelet aggregation
2. broncoconstriction
3. vasodilation
4. increased vascular permeability
5. leukocyte adhesion
6. chemotaxis
Source: from mast cells [+ macrophages + other leukocytes + epithelial cells]

55

Nitric Oxide

Function
1. inhibits platelet aggregation
Source: epithelial cells

56

Prostaglandin I2 [AKA prostacyclin]

Function
1. vasodilation
2. inhibits platelet aggregation
Source: epithelial cells

57

Lipoxin [Function]

1. negative regulator leukotrienes
-- inhibits neutrophil chemotaxis
-- causes vasodilation

58

What does aspirin inhibit?

Cyxlooxygenases
- prostaglandins
- thromboxanes

59

Fibrinopeptides [source, function]

Source: formed in reaction of fibrinogen --> fibrin
Function
1. induce vascular permeability
2. chemotactic for leukocytes

60

Thrombin [source of activation, function]

Source: activated from prothrombin by factor X
Function:
1. increases leukocyte adhesion to endothelium

61

Kallikrein [what system, function of enzyme, product]

- enzyme that is part of kinin system
Function
- forms bradykinin from plasma kininogens
- activates hageman factor [autocatalytic amplification loop]

62

Bradykinin [what system, function]

- protein of kinin system
Function
1. vasodilation
2. increased vascular permeability
3. pain

63

C5b-9 [source, function]

- part of complement system
Function: form membrane attack complex
1. lyse cells
2. stimulate arachidonic acid metabolism
3. produce ROS by leukocytes

64

C3b and C3bi [function]

1. opsonin [aid phagocytosis]

65

Hageman factor [other name, chemotactic function]

clotting factor XII
- causes neutrophil aggregation

66

FGF [Full name, function, source]

Fibroblast growth factor
Function: mitogenic
1. stimulates fibroblast proliferation
2. stimulates new vessel growth
Source: macrophages, fibroblasts

67

VEGF [Full name, Function]

Vascular endothelial growth factor
1. promotes growth of blood vessels
2. involved in sustained growth/angiogenesis transformation stage of cancer

68

EGF [Function, source]

Function
1. promotes epidermal migration and proliferation
Source: keratinocytes, macrophages

69

What does TF do specifically in coagulation cascade?

- binds and activates factor VII

70

What does VII do in coagulation cascade? How is it activated?

- activated by TF
- VII-TF complex activates factor X
- VII-TF complex activates factor IX to amplify thrombin generation

71

What does factor X do in coagulation cascade? How is it activated?

- activated by VII-TF complex
- converts thrombin --> prothrombin and
fibrinogen --> fibrin

72

Antithrombin III [Function]

1. binds heparin like molecule on epithelial cell surface
- inactivates thrombin
- inactivates factors X/IX