Lab1 Cell Injury Images Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lab1 Cell Injury Images Deck (32):
1

What type of adaptation has occured to the skeletal muscle fibers indicated by arrows? What possible cause?

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atrophy

possbily caused by focal neurogenic denervation

2

What type of adaptation does this demonstrate?

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Squamous metaplasia in trachea

Cells on right are nomral pseudostratified ciliated columnar

Cells on left are stratified squamous

3

What is the arrow pointing to? What two organs is it most commonly found in?

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Lipofuscin: normal product of metabolism, wear and tear pigment

often in elderly/atrophic tissue

In liver or heart [this is liver]

Usually innocuous

4

What normal endogenous substance is shown accumulated in this liver? 

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Triglycerides in liver of alcoholic

indicates reversible injury

5

What problem of liver is shown here? What type of endogenous substance might be accumulated here?

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Cirrhosis of liver

May be due to hemosiderin accumulated in hereditary hemochromatosis

May cause irreversible injury

6

What disease is associated with the sphingomyelin accumulated in this image of liver? What mech?

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Niemann-Pick disease

Inborn error due to failure in breakdown of sphingomyelin

7

What is the red arrow pointing to in this image of Niemann-Pick? What mech?

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sphingomyelin accumulated in lysosome

Inborn storage disese

failure to breakdown

8

What are the arrows pointing to in the liver? Hint: accumulated substance because problem in folding protein

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Alpha-1-antitrypsin

A protease inhibitor of neutrophil elastase

causes irreversible ER stress and thus cell death because abnormal a1-AT accumulates in ER

9

What is the blue line in this trichrome stain of an a1AT deficient patient's liver? What other effect does this disease have on another organ in body?

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Fibrosis band from hepatic scarring

Due to hepatic injury from entrapment of alpha 1 antitrypsin in liver endoplasmic reticulum

pulmonary emphysema due to deficiency of a1AT in rest of body

10

What does this show that is common in smokers and city dwellers? What substance accumulated? What can be negative effect in large amounts?

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This shows carbon duse [anthracotic pigment] accumulation in lung

Can cause pulmonary fibrosis in large amounts

11

What substance is accumulated in this hilar lymph node commonly found in smokers and city dwellers? What cell is it accumulated in?

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Anthracotic pigment = carbon dust

Accumulated in macrophages

12

What disease does show in lungs? What substance accumulated? What do arrows point to?

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Coal workers' pneumoconiosis [clinically significant anthracosis]

Due to accumulation of carbon dust/anthracotic pigment

Left arrow = carbon dust

right arrows = scarring

13

Which is normal and which abnormal liver? What type of reversible cell injury? How can you tell?

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Left is abnormal, right is normal

Hydropic change in hepatocytes

Indicated by swollen, clear cytoplasm

14

Which could have csuses this problem in aortic valve?

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Dystrophic calcification

15

What injury are these arrows pointing to in this image of retinoblastoma?

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Dystrophic calcification

16

What kind of calcification does this arrow point to in lung?

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metastatic calcification

17

Which is normal? Which type of necrosis in heart? Etiology?

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Right is normal

Left is coagulative necrosis

Due to irreversible ischemic injury

In heart after MI

18

What type of necrosis? What do arrows point to?

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Myocardial coagulative necrosis

arrows point to degenerating neutrophils

19

What type of necrosis? Most common location and etiology?

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Liquefactive necrosis

due to bacterial or fungal infection

most likely in lung or liver

20

What type of necrosis? Cause?

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Fat necrosis

Due to release of digestive enzymes [lipase] 

Occurs in pancreas

preserved architecture

21

What type of necrosis? Cause?

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Fibrinoid necrosis

Often in blood vessels in response to immune-mediated or hypertensive injury

Preserved architecutre

get fibrin and neutrophils

22

What type of cell death? How can you tell?

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Apoptosis

You can tell because of apoptotic bodies, lack of inflammatory cells, single + small cell

23

Describe the change in cardiac myocytes [right is normal]. What possible diagnosis?

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large, hyperchromatic nuclei

hypertrophy of myocytes

likely left ventricular hypertrophy

24

What is this cellular change in breast? Normal is right. Possible cause?

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Hyperplasia [of glands]

Hormonal stimulation due to pregnancy and lactation

25

What is this change [normal respiratory epithelium on left]? Possible cause?

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Metaplasia

possible cause = smoking, carcinogen

26

Which is pathological?

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Left

27

What is this change in the liver hepatocytes? What are the white blobs? Is this adaptation, reversible or irreversible cell injury? Possible cause

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Likely fat

this is hepatic steatosis

reversible cell injury

Alcohol abuse leads to fatty liver, starvation, Diabetes, obesity also can cause it

28

What is this change called? Normal myocardium is on the right. What type of cell death?

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- hypereosinophilic cytoplasm, nuclei within myocytes have mostly disappeared

Called karyolysis

Cells undergoing coagulative necrosis

29

What type of inflammatory cells in this myocardium?

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Neutrophils - multilobed

30

What cells are black arrows pointing to? What type of inflammation?

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lymphocytes

acute inflammation

31

What type of cellular change is arrow pointing to? How do you know? Adaptation, reversible or irreversible cell injury? Cause? What is intracellular substance?

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Hydropic change [cell swelling]

cell swollen, clear cytoplasm

Reversible cell injury

Due to influx Na and H2O into damaged cell

Intracellular substance = water

 

32

What type of cell change do these arrows point to?

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Apoptosis