What type of adaptation has occured to the skeletal muscle fibers indicated by arrows? What possible cause?
possbily caused by focal neurogenic denervation
What type of adaptation does this demonstrate?
Squamous metaplasia in trachea
Cells on right are nomral pseudostratified ciliated columnar
Cells on left are stratified squamous
What is the arrow pointing to? What two organs is it most commonly found in?
Lipofuscin: normal product of metabolism, wear and tear pigment
often in elderly/atrophic tissue
In liver or heart [this is liver]
What normal endogenous substance is shown accumulated in this liver?
Triglycerides in liver of alcoholic
indicates reversible injury
What problem of liver is shown here? What type of endogenous substance might be accumulated here?
Cirrhosis of liver
May be due to hemosiderin accumulated in hereditary hemochromatosis
May cause irreversible injury
What disease is associated with the sphingomyelin accumulated in this image of liver? What mech?
Inborn error due to failure in breakdown of sphingomyelin
What is the red arrow pointing to in this image of Niemann-Pick? What mech?
sphingomyelin accumulated in lysosome
Inborn storage disese
failure to breakdown
What are the arrows pointing to in the liver? Hint: accumulated substance because problem in folding protein
A protease inhibitor of neutrophil elastase
causes irreversible ER stress and thus cell death because abnormal a1-AT accumulates in ER
What is the blue line in this trichrome stain of an a1AT deficient patient's liver? What other effect does this disease have on another organ in body?
Fibrosis band from hepatic scarring
Due to hepatic injury from entrapment of alpha 1 antitrypsin in liver endoplasmic reticulum
pulmonary emphysema due to deficiency of a1AT in rest of body
What does this show that is common in smokers and city dwellers? What substance accumulated? What can be negative effect in large amounts?
This shows carbon duse [anthracotic pigment] accumulation in lung
Can cause pulmonary fibrosis in large amounts
What substance is accumulated in this hilar lymph node commonly found in smokers and city dwellers? What cell is it accumulated in?
Anthracotic pigment = carbon dust
Accumulated in macrophages
What disease does show in lungs? What substance accumulated? What do arrows point to?
Coal workers' pneumoconiosis [clinically significant anthracosis]
Due to accumulation of carbon dust/anthracotic pigment
Left arrow = carbon dust
right arrows = scarring
Which is normal and which abnormal liver? What type of reversible cell injury? How can you tell?
Left is abnormal, right is normal
Hydropic change in hepatocytes
Indicated by swollen, clear cytoplasm
Which could have csuses this problem in aortic valve?
What injury are these arrows pointing to in this image of retinoblastoma?
What kind of calcification does this arrow point to in lung?
Which is normal? Which type of necrosis in heart? Etiology?
Right is normal
Left is coagulative necrosis
Due to irreversible ischemic injury
In heart after MI
What type of necrosis? What do arrows point to?
Myocardial coagulative necrosis
arrows point to degenerating neutrophils
What type of necrosis? Most common location and etiology?
due to bacterial or fungal infection
most likely in lung or liver
What type of necrosis? Cause?
Due to release of digestive enzymes [lipase]
Occurs in pancreas
What type of necrosis? Cause?
Often in blood vessels in response to immune-mediated or hypertensive injury
get fibrin and neutrophils
What type of cell death? How can you tell?
You can tell because of apoptotic bodies, lack of inflammatory cells, single + small cell
Describe the change in cardiac myocytes [right is normal]. What possible diagnosis?
large, hyperchromatic nuclei
hypertrophy of myocytes
likely left ventricular hypertrophy
What is this cellular change in breast? Normal is right. Possible cause?
Hyperplasia [of glands]
Hormonal stimulation due to pregnancy and lactation
What is this change [normal respiratory epithelium on left]? Possible cause?
possible cause = smoking, carcinogen
Which is pathological?
What is this change in the liver hepatocytes? What are the white blobs? Is this adaptation, reversible or irreversible cell injury? Possible cause
this is hepatic steatosis
reversible cell injury
Alcohol abuse leads to fatty liver, starvation, Diabetes, obesity also can cause it
What is this change called? Normal myocardium is on the right. What type of cell death?
- hypereosinophilic cytoplasm, nuclei within myocytes have mostly disappeared
Cells undergoing coagulative necrosis
What type of inflammatory cells in this myocardium?
Neutrophils - multilobed
What cells are black arrows pointing to? What type of inflammation?
What type of cellular change is arrow pointing to? How do you know? Adaptation, reversible or irreversible cell injury? Cause? What is intracellular substance?
Hydropic change [cell swelling]
cell swollen, clear cytoplasm
Reversible cell injury
Due to influx Na and H2O into damaged cell
Intracellular substance = water
What type of cell change do these arrows point to?