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Flashcards in Cytoskeleton Deck (13):

Where are cilia found in humans?

Respiratory system (lungs)
Nervous system (ependymal cells)
Reproductive system (uterine tubes)


Main differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic flagella?

Eukaryotic = whipping motion, micro tubules made of tubulin

Prokaryotic = spinning or rotating motion. Simple helices made of flagellin


What would happen if micro tubule production was hindered?

All cells would have weaker cytoskeletons

Would lose transport functionality (pathways compromised)

Meiosis and mitosis could not be completed (spindle apparatus would not form)

Ciliates epithelial cells would lose function

Infertility of sperm


How are eukaryotic cilia and flagella arranged compared to prokaryotic ones?

Eukaryotic exhibit 9+2 arrangement of micro tubules

Prokaryotes are polymers of protein flagellin


Differences between flagella and cilia?

Cilia are stationary and move fluid and extra cellular material past cell whereas flagella move the cell

Cilia create a beating pattern whereas flagella is a whip pattern

Cilia are about 10micrometers. Flagella up to 200.

Can have many cilia but only 1-2 flagella per cell


Where can micro tubules be found?

Any cilia or flagella
All cells as part of cytoskeleton and spindle apparatus


What is the function of microtubules?

Transport materials in cytoplasm. It's a passage way.


Where is tubulin found?

It is a protein found in microtubules.


Which three elements make up the cytoskeleton and what does it do?

-Intermediate filaments

It's function is to give shape to the cell and provide movement.


Spindle apparatus

Separates chromosomes and divides them between the two new daughter cells.


Where is actin found and what does it do?

It makes up the microfilaments and is a contractile protein. Gets shorter and longer. It gives structure to the cell.


What are the intermediate filament?

Guide wires that prevent collisions with the cell. Maintains the organelle locations.


What's the function of the microfilaments?

Gives structure.