Flashcards in Cytoskeleton Deck (13):
Where are cilia found in humans?
Respiratory system (lungs)
Nervous system (ependymal cells)
Reproductive system (uterine tubes)
Main differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic flagella?
Eukaryotic = whipping motion, micro tubules made of tubulin
Prokaryotic = spinning or rotating motion. Simple helices made of flagellin
What would happen if micro tubule production was hindered?
All cells would have weaker cytoskeletons
Would lose transport functionality (pathways compromised)
Meiosis and mitosis could not be completed (spindle apparatus would not form)
Ciliates epithelial cells would lose function
Infertility of sperm
How are eukaryotic cilia and flagella arranged compared to prokaryotic ones?
Eukaryotic exhibit 9+2 arrangement of micro tubules
Prokaryotes are polymers of protein flagellin
Differences between flagella and cilia?
Cilia are stationary and move fluid and extra cellular material past cell whereas flagella move the cell
Cilia create a beating pattern whereas flagella is a whip pattern
Cilia are about 10micrometers. Flagella up to 200.
Can have many cilia but only 1-2 flagella per cell
Where can micro tubules be found?
Any cilia or flagella
All cells as part of cytoskeleton and spindle apparatus
What is the function of microtubules?
Transport materials in cytoplasm. It's a passage way.
Where is tubulin found?
It is a protein found in microtubules.
Which three elements make up the cytoskeleton and what does it do?
It's function is to give shape to the cell and provide movement.
Separates chromosomes and divides them between the two new daughter cells.
Where is actin found and what does it do?
It makes up the microfilaments and is a contractile protein. Gets shorter and longer. It gives structure to the cell.
What are the intermediate filament?
Guide wires that prevent collisions with the cell. Maintains the organelle locations.