What does each depict?
1) Obligate aerobic bacteria gather at the top of the test tube in order to absorb maximal amount of oxygen.
2) Obligate anaerobic bacteria gather at the bottom to avoid oxygen.
3) Facultative bacteria gather mostly at the top, since aerobic respiration is advantageous (ie, energetically favorable); but as lack of oxygen does not hurt them, they can be found all along the test tube.
4) Microaerophiles gather at the upper part of the test tube but not at the top. They require oxygen, but at a lower concentration.
5) Aerotolerant bacteria are not affected at all by oxygen, and they are evenly spread along the test tube.
What is required for glycolysis?
NAD+, ATP, ADP
How many ATP are produced in glycolysis?
4 ATP produced (2 net)
What is the end product of glycolysis?
2 NADH, 4ATP, 2 Pyruvate (3C's each)
What is substrate level oxidation?
Substrate-Level Phosphorylation occurs during glycolysis. This is a process by which ATP is formed and the phosphate necessary to form that ATP comes from a substrate molecule
Why is fermentation important?
It regenerates NAD+ so glycolysis can continue
When do prokaryotes/eukaryotes use fermentation?
Fermentation is the sole route of of metabolizing glucose for most bacteria. Animals use only when in oxygen debt.
Draw out cellular respiration
Why does FADH2 produce less ATP than NADH?
FADH2 molecules deliver electrons to complex II, succinate dehydrogenase. This step bypasses Complex I and the protons normally pumped by Complex I. As a result, electrons delivered by FADH2 to the ETC account for a smaller portion of the electrochemical gradient and therefore result in the production of relatively less ATP.
What does each 2-carbon cycle of Beta oxidation yield?
1 FADH2 (2ATP)
I NADH (3ATP)
1 acetyl coA (12ATP)
Where are lipids metabolized?
Where are lipids synthesized?
What role do peroxisomes play in lipid metabolism?
Extra long fatty acids cannot be metabolized by mitochondria so peroxisomes chop them up into smaller pieces. Then they are able to be metabolized by mitochondria.
To completely oxidize a 14-carbon fatty acid you would need __ cycles of Beta oxidation.
What order are biomolecules burned?
How many calories are in a gram of
What is the order in the ETC?
Complex II/I-->coenzyme Q-->Complex III-->cytochrome C--> Complex IV (where oxygen is reduced to H20)
What does the ETC look like?