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Flashcards in Damjanov chapter 5 Deck (23):
1

Bronchioli are devoid of

cartilage

2

Type II pneumocytes produce

surfactant

3

Mucus made by mucus glands have

GAGS, glycoproteins, complex carbs, IgA, macrophages

4

Left upper lobe drains into; right upper lobe drains into

right lymphatic duct; thoracic duct

5

Pulmonary immune response includes

mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT); see T, B cells and resident macrophages and Ag-presenting cells like Langerhans cells

6

Total ventilation is

VE = f x VT

7

Fick's law is

Vgas = A x D(P1 - P2) / T

8

In restrictive lung diseases

diffusion of CO from alveolar air into blood is reduced;

9

V/Q ratio is normally

.8 (defects in obstruction of the airflow passages like obstructive lung disease, or obstruction of pulmonary blood blow like PE)

10

Respiratory centers:

1. medullary respiratory: inspiratory in dorsal medulla (glossopharyngeal and vagus stimulatory, efferent through phrenic nerve) and expiratory in ventral medulla that's usually dormant
2. Apneustic center: lower pons; prolongs contraction of the diaphragm
3. Pneumotaxic center: upper pons that inhibits respiration by reducing tidal volume

11

In metabolic acidosis the chemoreceptors

respond to lowered pH by increasing respiration rate

12

Receptors responding to stretch in smooth muscles of bronchi activate; irritant receptors can cause

Hering-Breuer reflex;
bronchoconstriction, sneezing, pain (link to C type nerve fibers)

13

Which values can be measured by spirometer? What can't be?

VC, IC, ERV;
FRC and TLC need additional special studies

14

Lung equations:

RV = FRC - ERV;
IC = VT + IRV;
TLC = IRV + VT + ERV + RV;;
FRC = ERV + RV;
VC = ERV + VT + IRV

15

Forceful coughing may cause

lightheadedness and syncope b/c increased intrathoracic pressure may compress the venae cavae and reduce return of venous blood into R heart

16

Cough can be suppressed with

1. drugs that anesthetize respiratory receptors (benzonatate or phenol-containing drugs)
2. raising the threshold for the sensory impulses in the medullary cough center (dextromethorphan)

17

Blood expectorated from lungs is

arterial and red and alkaline (in hematemesis blood is dark red and acidic)

18

Kussmaul breathing characterized by

very deep rapid breathing (feature of metabolic acidosis, like diabetic ketoacidosis)

19

Obstructed sleep apnea associated with

loss of muscle tone of pharyngeal muscles that occurs during REM sleep;
think PICKWICKIAN syndrome with someone who is obese

20

Central sleep apnea though to be the cause of

sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)

21

Early inspiratory crackles, late inspiratory crackles, and paninspiratory crackles found in:

E: obstructive lung disease, severe CHF;
L: chronic interstitial disease or pulmonary fibrosis; maybe atelectasis or chronic heart failure
P: both cardiac and pulmonary disease

22

Five examples of decreased DLCO:

1. Pneumonia (exudate)
2. Interstitial
3. Pulmonary fibrosis (alveolar fibrosis)
4. Emphysema (loss of alveoli)
5. CHF (edema and alveolar fibrosis)

23

Hypercapnia of hypoventilation is typically associated with

respiratory acidosis; whereas hypocapnia of hyperventilation associated with respiratory alkalosis