DD 3 chemical mediators of inflammation Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in DD 3 chemical mediators of inflammation Deck (48):
1

Non-neoplastic processes that incite an inflammatory response. how?

Developmental, traumatic, degenerative, infectious, inflammatory, vascular, toxic-metabolic, other:

---> leukocyte activation

2

What is a sarcoid?

Abnormal collection of inflammatory cells

3

Ex. of sentinal cells that produce mediators of inflammation

mainly macrophages, dendritic cells, mast cells

4

3 categories of chemical mediators

1. Local-cell derived
2. Liver/plasma derived
3. exogenous sources

5

Which of the 3 categories of chemical mediators account for the majority of mediators?

Local-cell derived

6

What are some examples of exogenous sources that can act as mediators of inflammation?

a. Bacterial lipopolysaccharides/endotoxins, others

b. Tissue debris (lipids, proteins)

7

4 major categories of Local cell derived chemical mediators of inflammation?

1. vasoactive amines
2. lipids
3. peptides and polypeptides
4. oxygen-based moieties

8

2 examples of vasoactive amines as a chemical mediators of inflammation.
why are they important?

Histamine, Serotonin

- most important actions on blood vessels

9

3 examples of lipids as a chemical mediators of inflammation

1. Prostaglandins
2. Leukotrienes
3. Platelet activating factor

10

5 examples of peptides and polypeptides as a chemical mediators of inflammation

1. Bradykinin
2. Interleukin - a (cytokine)
3. Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) - a (cytokine)
4. Substance P
5. Cytoplasmic enzymes

11

2 examples of oxygen based moieties as a chemical mediators of inflammation

activated oxygen species

nitric oxide

12

What are the actions of Local/Inflammatory Cell-Derived chemical mediators?

1. Vessel effects (local effect)
2. Inflammatory cell effects
3. Tissue/microbe damage (local effect)
4. Bronchial smooth muscle effects
5. Physiologic (systemic effects)

13

Cells responsible for the synthesis of Local/Inflammatory Cell-Derived chemical mediators?

1. Macrophages (mainly)

2. mast cells, basophils, platelets

3. sensory nerve endings

14

Cells responsible for producing Histamine?
Serotonin?
Substance P?

□ Histamine - made by mast cells, basophils, platelets
□ Serotonin - platelets
□ Substance P -from sensory nerve endings

15

Cells responsible for producing
prostaglandins?
Leukotrienes?
platelet activating factor?

prostaglandins - mast cells, leukocytes
Leukotrienes - mast cells, leukocytes
platelet activating factor - mast cells, leukocytes

16

Cells responsible for producing

Platelet activating factors?
Complement?
Kinins?

Platelet activating factors - leukocytes, mast cells
Complement - plasma
Kinins - plasma

17

Action of histamine?

vasodilation,
increased vascular permeability,

chemotaxis

endothelial activation

18

Action of Prostaglandin?

Vasodilation, pain, fear

19

Action of Leukotrienes?

Increased vascular permeability,

chemotaxis,

leukocyte adhesion

20

Action of Cytokines (TNF, IL-1, Il-6)?
Local and systemic

local: endothelial activation

systemic: fever, metabolic abnormalities, hypotension

21

What type of mediator is TNF? Interleukins?

Cytokines

22

Action of chemokines

chemotaxis,
leukocyte activation

23

Action of platelet-activating factor

vasodilation
increased vascular permeability

chemotaxis

leukocyte adhesion
degranulation

24

Action of complement

vasodilation

leukocyte chemotaxis and activation
direct target killing (MAC)

25

Actions of Kinins

vasodilation
increased vascular permeability

smooth muscle contraction
- potent vasodilator --> drop bp --> sm contracts

pain

26

Examples of preformed mediators

histamine, serotonin, lysosomes

27

Difference between basophils and mast cells?

basophils: circulating
mast cells: tissue based

- both make histamine

28

Examples of newly synthesized on demand mediators.

Eicosanoids,
Platelet Activating Factor,
Activated oxygen species,
nitric oxide,
cytokines

29

Eicosanoid types

prostaglandins
leukotrienes
thromboxanes
lipoxins
prostacyclin

30

Systemic/liver derived mediators

bradykinin
coagulation factors
complements : MAC (C3, C5), anaphylaxatoxins

31

Steps of Coagulation systems/thrombin

Protease activated receptor (PAR) → activates Thrombin protease→ cleaves fibrinogen → produce fibrin (expressed on platelets and leukocytes) → forms clot

32

Steps of fibrinolytic system/plasmin

Cleave Plasminogen → produce plasmin → cleave C3 → C3a

33

Critical step in complement activation: what happens to its products

proteolysis of C3 (most abundant) → via active enzyme C3 convertase = C3a and C3b

C3a: released

C3b: covalently attach to cell or molecule @ complement activation site → C5 convertase → C5a and C5b

34

Do complements function in innate or adaptive immunity?

Both

35

Steps of kinin system/bradykinin

Kallikrein proteases → cleave kininogen → bradykinin

36

What are kinins?

vasoactive peptides derived from plasma proteins

37

What mediators are responsible for smooth muscle contraction?

Histamine
Serotonin
Eicosanoid
kinins

38

Are platelet activating factors responsible for vasodilation?

yes Platelet activating factor (in ↓amounts)

39

What mediators are responsible for vascular permeability

Histamine
Serotonin
Eicosanoid - LT
Platelet activating factor (in ↓ amounts)
Kinins

40

What mediators are responsible for vascoconstriction

platelet activating factor (in high amounts)

41

What mediators are responsible for chemotaxis?

SPENCH


Serotonin
Platelet activating factor
Eicosanoid - LT
Nitric Oxide (NO) - iNos
Chemokines
Histamine

42

What mediators are responsible for microbial effect/tissue damage?

Reactive O2 species
Nitric Oxide (NO) - iNos

43

How are Lymphocytes mediators?

They are mediators of adaptive immunity → defense against infectious pathogens

44

Which chemical mediators are involved in vasodilation?

Histamine
Prostaglandins
Platelet activating factor (in ↓amounts)
Kinins
Complements
Eicosanoid - PGI2
Nitric Oxide (NO) - I, e, n

45

Are leukotrienes involved in vasodilation?

No.

(prostaglandin is though!)

46

Serotonin is not a vasodilator. True/false

True

47

Is serotonin a vasodilator?

no

48

Leukotriene is a vasodilator. True false?

False.
Not a vasodilator