Flashcards in Practice DD exams Deck (22)
Which complements are anaphylaxatoxins?
C3a and C5a
- lead to histamine release from mast cells
Which type of stroke is associated w/ acute tubular necrosis and DIC?
exertional heat stroke
What is metaplasia?
Replacement of 1 cell type w/ another
necrosis in the spleen common with which type of necrosis?
- brain too
fat necrosis typically in which organ?
Which chemical mediator is associated with fever and an acute phase reaction?
Tumor necrosis factor
Arachadonic acids are precursors for which lipids when using COX?
When using 5'-lipoxygenase?
Is platelet activating factor associated w/ fever and an acute phase reaction?
Tumor necrosis factor
How is leukotriene produced from arachadonic acid?
5-HPETE via (5'-Lipoxygenase) -->
LTA4 (leukotriene A4) -->
LTB4 or LTC4/D4/E4
Does platelet activating factor have local or systemic effect. Knowing this, does it involve fever? platelet activation? chemotaxis? bronchospasm?
- Fever: NO effect
-platelet activation: yes
- chemotaxis: yes
- bronchospasm: Yes
What does factor XII activate? what is it also known as?
factor XII (hagemon factor)
- activates kallikrein leading to pain
-activates clotting factors, leading to thrombin activation
What does the complement cascade activation entail?
formation of MAC
can complement activate fever?
no (neither is platelet activating factor)
○ Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)
○ C-Reactive protein
both are involved in which test?
acute phase reactant test
Factor XII hagemon activation activates which 2 systems?
is C5 associated with this system or COX?
kinin system (bradykinin)
C5 is associated w/ Factor XII
- remember that factor XII can lead to both the kinin cascade and fibrinolytic system to activate complement cascade
- do not mix up w/ arachadonic acid and COX activation
Which chemical mediators of inflammation is synthesized by the liver and activated at the site of its activity?
Would rheumatoid arthritis be associated with a transudate or exudate?
- associated w/ inflammation/tissue injury
-kidney failure causes backup (transudate)
-liver failure no longer makes albumin which lowers oncotic pressure (transudate)
Would liver and renal failure be associated with a transudate or exudate?
Would starvation be associated with a transudate or exudate?
Which chemical mediators of inflammation is responsible for direct microbial and tissue damage?
Reactive oxygen species
Difference in empyema and abcess?
empyema – purulent exudate arising preexisting anatomical space,
abcess – arises in parenchyma and walled up and ends up in a newly formed space