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1

Phylum Annelida

"Little rings"- Vermiform- Metamerism- Setae- Paired parapodia- Cerebral ganglia (brain) and ventral nervous cord- Muscles in all directions- Complete digestive system- Closed circulatory system + Dorsal and ventral vessels with 5 pumping vessels (heart)- Blood with hemoglobin + Causes red coloration- Metanephridia + One pair per segment- Trochophore larvae + Shared characteristic with mollusksClasses:- Polychaeta- Oligochaeta- Hirudinea

2

Veriform

Worm-shaped

3

Metamerism

Replicated organs found within each segment.

4

Setae (chetae)

#NAME?

5

Parapodia

"Almost feet"- Appendage containing the setae.- Paired in annelids.

6

Metanephridia

Excretory organs (e.g., kidneys)

7

When the ___ muscles contract, setae protrude.

Longitudinal

8

When the ___ muscles contract, setae withdraw.

Circular

9

Class Polychaeta

"Many setae"- Well developed head- Evertable pharynx with jaws- One portion of parapodia modified as gills- Free-living + Sandworms + Fireworms- Tube-dwellers + Feather duster + Christmas tree worm- Sexual and asexual reproduction- Mostly dioecious

10

Tube-dweller characteristics

#NAME?

11

Polychaeta asexual reproduction

Regeneration of body parts.

12

Polychaeta sexual reproduction

- Sperm or egg found in specific body segments or in all segments.- Sperm or egg usually exit via the nephridiopores, though some may brood eggs within burrows or the coelom.- Epitoky (in tube-dwellers)

13

Class Oligochaeta

Earthworms - "Few setae"- Mostly freshwater and within moist soil; a few are marine- No parapodia- Posses tiny setae- Cerebral ganglia- Reduced head- Egg and sperm only found in certain segments- Hermaphrodites- Poorly developed head and sensory structures + Head only contains a mouth- Respiration via diffusion through the skin- Digestive system adapted for decomposition of organic matter + Crop and gizzard for grinding- Excrete waste through epidermis- Skeleton of water- Cerebral ganglia + Composed of a ring of nerve cells- Ganglia within the nerve cord and in each segment

14

Oligochaeta asexual reproduction

#NAME?

15

Oligochaeta sexual reproduction

Refers to earthworms:- Hermaphroditic with special segments for holding gonads.- Simultaneous sperm exchange- External fertilization + Fertilization occurs in the clitellum- Eggs released in a cocoon- Direct development + No larval stage

16

Clitellum

Ring of mucus on outside of that body in which sperm is deposited and fertilization occurs.

17

Class Hirudinea

Leeches (many exceptions to the rules)- Ectoparasitic (blood-sucking), carnivorous, or scavengers + Possess local anesthetic to prevent pain and clotting.- Marine, freshwater, or terrestrial- Lack parapodia- Lack setae- Lack head appendage- Reduced coelom and segmentation- Same sexual reproduction characteristics as earthworms- No asexual reproduction- Dorsoventrally flattened with suckers on both ends.- Coelom reduced and filled with mesenchyme- Open circulatory system + Possess a heart with vessels that open to other tissues.- Complete digestive system- Complete excretory system

18

Less segmentation found in ___ than in ___.

Oligochaeta, polychaeta

19

Lophophorates

- Possess characteristics of protostomes and deuterostomes. + Variable coelomate formation + Variable fate of the blastopore- Bilateral coelomates- Possess a lophophore- Protostome-like ribosomes- Mostly marinePhylums:- Phoronida- Bryozoa- Brachiopoda

20

Phylum Phoronida

Tube dwellers that create their own tube.

21

Phylum Bryozoa

#NAME?

22

Phylum Brachiopoda

#NAME?

23

Lophophore

Horseshoe-shaped structure for feeding

24

Phylum Arthropoda

"Jointed feet"- Largest animal group- Tagma- Open circulatory system containing heart with ostia, hemocoel, and hemolymph.- Complete digestive system with several pairs of mouthparts- Ventral nerve cord- Cuticle + Chitinous exoskeleton- Exoskeleton composed of separate plates- Epidermis + Secretes new chitin- Musculature + Flexors/extenders + Articulations - Joint muscles- Protostomes- Coelomates with reduced coelom- Molt- Variable respiratory systems

25

Tagma

Fused segments of arthropods.Most have all 3:- Head (4 segments)- Thorax (4-6 segments)- Abdomen- E.g., dragonfly, bee.Some possess only 2:- Cephalothorax- Abdomen- E.g., spiders, lobsters.

26

Ecydysone

Hormone responsible for molting.

27

Respiratory systems of Arthropoda

#NAME?

28

Ostia

Little valve openings that allow the tissue fluid to go back to the heart.

29

Hemocoel

Area containing the open circulatory system. - Not a cavity.

30

Hemolynth

Blood-like liquid within the open circulatory system.

31

Arthropod coelom reduced to ___ and ___ ___.

Gonads, excretory organs

32

Arthropod coelom surrounds the ___ and ___.

Heart, gonads

33

Excretory systems of Arthropods

#NAME?

34

Anthropods have arteries leading to and from the heart to the ___ and ___.

Gills, hemocoel

35

Malphigian tubules

Hollow tubes closed at one end. Found within the hemocoel and part of the digestive system. Filter metabolic/cellular waste by picking up uric acid, guanine, etc. and sending to the intestines to be excreted via the feces.

36

Green glands are always found in the ___ and in ___.

Head, pairs

37

Simple eyes

"Ocelli"- Able to see shadows and light- Characteristic of all animals with eyes

38

Compound eyes

#NAME?

39

Uniramous appendage

One axis (no branching)

40

Biramous appendage

#NAME?

41

Endopodite

Longer of the two axes.

42

Exopodite

Shorter of the two axes. May be modified into gills in some animals such as crabs.

43

Mouthpart types

#NAME?

44

Mandible

Serrated and used for cutting. - Characteristic of insects and crustaceans

45

Chelicerae

Contain fangs that are connected to a poison gland. Contain pedipalps. + Characteristic of Chelicerata

46

Pedipalps

Appendages on chelicerae used to bring food to the mouth.

47

How are Arthropods classified?

#NAME?

48

Arthropoda asexual reproduction

Parthenogenesis - Unique to insects within Arthropoda + Characteristic of aphids - Typically used by organisms that grow very quickly.

49

Arthropoda sexual reproduction

#NAME?

50

Direct development

No larval stage, all embryological development occurs within the egg. - Typically seen in terrestrial arthropods

51

Indirect development

Larval stage. - Typically seen in aquatic arthropods.

52

Subphylum Trilobitomorpha

Trilobites- Common during Carboniferous Era- Benthic- Biramous- Antennae (one pair)- Left behind many fossils

53

Subphylum Chelicerata

#NAME?

54

Class Merostomata

Horseshoe crabs (Limulus polyphemus)- Subphylum Chelicerata- Cephalothorax, abdomen, and telson + Telson used to flip them over

55

Book lungs of spiders found on their ___ ___.

Ventral abdomen

56

Class Arachnida

#NAME?

57

Spermatophore

Sperm sac

58

Arachnida reproduction

Spiders - Place their spermatophore inside of the female and haul ass.Scorpions - Place the spermatophore on the ground and dance to attract a female who will then pick it up with her opening.

59

Gonopore

Exit for sperm or egg.

60

Spinerett

Silk producing organ of spiders and some insects.

61

What order are camel spiders in?

Solifuga

62

Class Pycnogonida

Sea spiders- Not actually spiders- No abdomen + Organs extend into legs- Ovigerous legs in males- Live in corals

63

Ovigerous legs

Legs modified for brooding eggs.

64

Subphylum/Class Crustacea

#NAME?

65

Crustacean cephalothoracic segmentation

- Eyes- 1st antennae (antennules) + Short- 2nd antennae + Long- Mandibile with 1st and 2nd maxillae (mouthparts); maxillae cover the mandible.

66

In crustaceans, the exopodites/gills are found beneath the ___.

Carapace

67

Crustacean thoracic segmentation

- 1st, 2nd and 3rd maxillipeds (pairs) + Modified legs used as mouthparts- Chelipeds + First leg (claw)- Pereiopods (walking legs)

68

Crustacean abdominal segmentation

#NAME?

69

Crustacean larval forms

#NAME?

70

Order Copepoda (Crustacea)

#NAME?

71

Order Cirripedia (Crustacea)

Barnacles- Marine- Some are symbiotic- "Fouling" organisms + Accumulate on wet surfaces- Largest penis in relation to its size- Small filament legs inside of shell + Used for filter feeding- May have a peduncle + Muscular stalk that attaches to surfaces- May be hermaphroditic

72

Class Isopoda (Crustacea)

"Equal legs"- Marine with one exception + Pill bug is terrestrial but possess gills

73

Order Decapoda (Crustacea)

"5 pairs of walking legs"- Largest order of Crustacea- Marine- Lobsters, shrimps, and crabs.

74

Brooding in crabs

- Female carries fertilized eggs under abdomen.- Eggs hatch and zoea larvae emerge.- Zoea molt 5 times until the reach their second stage, megalops.- Megalops molts several times before forming into a young crab which will grow to maturity.

75

Differences between insects, chelicerates, and crustaceans.

Insects- 1 pair of antennae- 3 pairs of appendages- MandibleChelicerates- No antennae- 4 pairs of appendages- CheliceraeCrustaceans- 2 pairs of antennae- 5+ pairs of appendages- Mandible

76

Subphylum Uniramia, Class Insecta (Arthropoda)

Insecta also called "Hexapoda"- Largest animal group- 3 tagma + Head + Thorax + Abdomen- Urinamous appendages (hence subphylum name)- 3 pairs of legs- 1 pair of antennae- Most have 2 pairs of wings attached to thorax- Spiracles- Movement-sensing hairs- Undergo metamorphosis with instars (stages)- Die following reproduction

77

Spiracles

Holes that allow air to enter the trachea. Tracheal tubes get smaller as they go inward. Gasses leave the body through the tissues.

78

An animal is an adult when it is able to ___.

Reproduce

79

Metabolous

Undergo metamorphosis - Hemimetabolous - Holometabolous

80

Ametabolous

Does not undergo metamorphosis. No larval stage.

81

Pterygota

Wings insects

82

Apterygota

Insects without wings

83

Metabolous insects are always ___.

Pterygota

84

Ametabolous insects are always ___.

Apterygota

85

Silverfish or bristletail

Ametabolous and apterygota. No larval stage, hatch as a smaller version of the adult and undergo molting.

86

Hemimetabolous

Incomplete metamorphosis - Exopterygota - Nymph stages + Nymph hatches with no wings. Animal reaches adulthood when the wings grow to cover the entire abdomen.- E.g., roaches

87

Exopterygota

Wings form on the outside of the body. - Characteristic of hemimetabolous organisms.

88

Holometabolous

Complete metamorphosis - Endopterygota - Larva and pupa with cocoon stages

89

Endopterygota

Wings form in pupa. - Characteristic of holometabolous organisms.

90

Pupa

#NAME?

91

Pterygota feeding mechanisms

#NAME?

92

Pterygota feeding habits

#NAME?

93

Insect defense mechanisms

#NAME?

94

Insects are vital in order for ___ to occur.

Pollenation

95

One insect species is the only one able to lay eggs in a certain plant species that is ___.

Toxic

96

Insecta (Hexapoda) reproduction

Asexual- Parthenogenesis + Characteristic of aphids - Both the parent and offspring are haploid.Sexual- Dioecious- Internal fertilization

97

Blow flies lay their eggs in ___.

Carcasses

98

Ants and aphids

Mutualistic relationship between the two. Ants eat sugar excreted from aphids and provide them with protection.

99

Order Coleoptera

Beetles- First pair of wings used for protection- Second pair of wings used for flying

100

Order Diptera

Flies- One pair of wings- Second pair of wings modified and extremely reduced

101

Order Hymenoptera

Wasps/Bees- Two pairs of membranous wings, both used in flight

102

Order Lepidoptera

Butterflies/moths- Scaly wings

103

Class Diplopoda

Millipedes- Diplosegments + Two segments fused to create one segment - 2 pairs of legs per segment (4 legs total)- Herbivorous- Chewing mouthpart

104

Class Chilipoda

Centipedes- One pair of legs per segment (2 total)- Predaceous- Fangs with venom- Live in dark, moist habitats such as under rocks and logs.- Bright colors to advertise danger

105

Phylum Onychophora

Velvet worms- Considered a possible "missing link" due to shared characteristics of both annelids and arthropods; may be an ancestor of either.- Terrestrial bottom-dwellers in rainforestsAnnelid characteristics:- Soft cuticle- Segmented nephridia- Non-jointed appendagesArthropod characteristics:- Hemocoel- Tracheae- Molt their cuticle- Feeding appendages

106

Phylum Echinodermata

#NAME?

107

Echinoderm reproduction

Asexual- Regeneration of lost arms arms- 1/5 of the disk must exist and should include a portion of the mouthSexual- Mostly dioecious- External fertilization- Planktonic larvae

108

Class Asteroidea

Sea stars- Predaceous + Can destroy reefs- Two stomaches- Can exert stomach to pry open bivalves to feed on

109

Class Cronoideae

Sea lilies and feather stars- Predaceous- Many branched out arms (resembling feathers)- Secondary radial symmetry

110

Class Ophiuroidea

Brittles stars and basket stars- Body made of calcareous plates/shields

111

Class Echinoidea

Sea urchins, sand dollars, and sea biscuits- Sea urchins: Radial symmetry- Sand dollars and sea biscuits: Tertiary bilateral symmetry- Urchins have well-developed, movable spines

112

Tertiary bilateral symmetry

Bilateral > Radial > Bilateral

113

Teca

Shell composed of the fused arms of Echinoidea

114

Class Holoturoidea

Sea cucumbers- Tertiary bilateral symmetry- Crown of tentacles by mouth + Tentacles are part of a modified water vascular system- Barely any ossicles- Can't feed after evisceration

115

Phylum Hemichordata

Acorn worms- Marine- Burrowing- Proboscis + Modified for digging- Mouth positioned behind proboscis and before collar- Coelom- Pharyngeal gill slits + Gas exchange- Hollow nerve cord- Eat dirt- U-shaped burrow with mad poop at one end

116

Phylum Chordata

#NAME?

117

Postanal tail

Extension of the body passed the anal region.

118

Dorsal, hollow nerve cord

Bundle of nerve fibers which runs down the back. Connects the brain with lateral muscles and organs.- Created by the invagination of the ectoderm. Eventually becomes the nervous system.

119

Notochord

Solid, cartilaginous rod which is flexible and supports the dorsal nerve cord.

120

Pharyngeal slits

Series of openings that connect the inside of the throat (pharynx) to the outside of the "neck." + May contain gills + Used in filter feeding by invertebrates using a layer of mucus.

121

Subphylum Urochordata

#NAME?

122

Sea squirts and tunicates

- Larvae: Tadpoles that have all 4 chordate characteristics + Motile- Adult only has pharyngeal slits + Sessile- Loss of cephalization in adult- Tunic- Closed circulatory system with heart- Complete digestive system- Kidneys- Reduced coelom surrounds heart- Gas exchange through pharyngeal basket, skin, or other surfaces- Dioecious + External fertilization and possible regeneration

123

Tunic

Exoskeleton composed of tunicin + Tunicin is composed of proteins and carbohydrates and grows with the animal

124

Seasquirt, tunicate and larvacean adult feeding method

Filter feedersIncurrent (buccal) siphon > pharyngeal slits that form a pharyngeal basket > mucus accumulates in endostyle, esophagus, stomach, intestine, and anus.

125

Seasquirt, tunicate and larvacean adult path of water circulation

Incurrent siphon > pharyngeal basket > atrium > atriopore

126

Atriopore

Excurrent siphon

127

Paedogenesis

#NAME?

128

Thaliaceans and larvaceans

- Adult maintains all 4 chordate characteristics.- Filter feed using "mucus house." + House is discarded regularly and eaten by other organisms.- Planktonic- Feed on phytoplankton- Resemble tadpole larvae- Adults are motile

129

Algae are a type of ___.

Phytoplankton

130

Subphylum Cephalochordata

"Head chordata" - Lancelets (other groups are extinct)- Larvae and adults show all 4 chordate characteristics- Pelagic larvae- Adult partially buried- Adults have a poorly developed head with long trunk and tail.- Myomere- Reduced coelom- Dorsal and ventral fins (not paired)- Closed circulatory system + No heart- Dioecious- External fertilization (mostly)- Native species: Brachiostoma floridae

131

Myomere

Segments of muscles allowing for lateral movement.

132

Adult lancelet characteristics

Complete digestive system- Ventral mouth with tentacles > pharynx with slits > intestine > anusPath of water- Buccal siphon > pharyngeal slits > endostyle > atrium > atrioporeRespiration- Most likely through skin or intestines

133

Evolution of vertebrate chordates

#NAME?

134

Vertebrate evolution hypothesis A

Ancestral vertebrate chordate evolved from cepholocordate-like (lancelet) animal.- P. slits used for filter feeding- Swam with lateral undulations- Possessed brain but no craniumEvidence- Lancelet adults have 4 chordate characteristics- Lamprey larvae resemble lancelet larvae

135

Vertebrate evolution hypothesis B

Vertebrates evolved from Urochordates- Believed to have occurred through paedogenesis.

136

Subphylum Vertebrata

- Hollow, dorsal nerve cord- Notochord + Becomes vertebral column and intervertebral disks.- P. slits + Contain gills in aquatic animals and close in terrestrial.- Post anal tail + Characteristic of most vertebrates- Brain with cranium (cartilage/bone)- Neural crest- Extreme cephalization with sensory organs in the head and dorsal nervous system- Mineralization (ossification) of body structures- Endoskeleton- Respiratory system of gills, lungs and/or skin- Complete digestive system- Kidneys- Well-developed muscles

137

Fate of the germ layers

Ectoderm- Nervous and sense organs; epidermis; pituitary gland (when present)Mesoderm- Notochord; skeleton; muscles; circulatory system; excretory system; reproductive system; outer layers of digestive systemEndoderm- Lining of the digestive tube and structures that develop from it such as the lining of the respiratory system

138

Class Agnatha

"Jawless fishes"- Lampreys, hagfish, and Ostracoderms- Circular mouth

139

Lampreys

- Marine/freshwater- Feed on blood- Persistent notochord- Cartilaginous cranium- No true bony skeleton- Single fins or no fins- No scales- One or no appendages- 2 chambered heart- Dioecious or monoecious + External fertilization

140

Hagfish

#NAME?

141

Ostracoderms

#NAME?

142

Pharyngeal slits held open and in place by ___ ___.

Skeletel rods

143

Evolution of the jaw

Skeletal rod 3 became the upper jaw and skeletal rod 4 attached it to the cranium.

144

Gnathostomes

Jawed fishes

145

Class Placodermi

"Plate skinned"- Extinct- Jawed fish- Ossified plates + Not seen in extant species- Paired fins- Ossified jaws

146

Class Chondrichthyes

Sharks, rays, ratfish and chimeras- Ancestors had bones so they are considered vertebrates (cartilage is non-ossified).- Notochord persists- Sub-terminal mouth- Paired fins- 2 chambered heart- Mostly ectothermic- Lateral line + Detects pressure- Ampullae of Lorenzini + Detects electricity- Placoid scales + Unique to this class- No operculum + Ratfish are an exception- No swim bladder- Oils in liver regulate buoyancy- Mostly dioecious- Internal fertilization with eggs and few offspring- Heterocercal caudal fin + Top portion longer than bottom

147

Male chondrichthyans have ___ and both male and females have a ___.

Claspers, cloaca

148

Shark scales contain ___ and ___.

Enamel, dentine

149

Ratfish

Chrondrichtheans with shark-like bodies.- Have an operculum- Feed like fish

150

Viviparity

Live bearing

151

Ovoviviparity

Egg hatches within the mother; live bearing.

152

Oviparity

Lays eggs

153

Humans killed over ___ shark last year.

150 million

154

Megalodon

Went extinct between 12-30 million years ago; only teeth have been found.

155

Caudal fin

Tail

156

Anal fins

Near anus

157

Pelvic fin

On belly

158

Pectoral fin

On sides

159

Class Osteichthyes

- Notochord persistent- Skeleton at least partially ossified- 2 chambered heart- Paired fins- Terminal mouth- Mostly dioecious + Oviparous with external fertilization- Homocercal caudal fin + Top same size as bottom- Scales formed from dermis

160

Subclass Actinopterygii

Ray finned fish- Gars- Sturgeons- Teleosts

161

Gars

#NAME?

162

Sturgeons

- Primitive group- Ganoid (bony) scales- Cartilaginous skeleton- Torpedo shaped body- May live p to 50 years- May reach 14 ft.- Marine but spawn in freshwater- Opportunistic bottom feeders

163

Teleosts

#NAME?

164

Cycloid scales

Smooth outer edge

165

Ctenoid scales

Toothed outer edge

166

Order Gasterosteiformes

Sea horses and pipefishes

167

Subclass Sarcopterygii

Lobe finned fish- Coelocanths- Lungfishes + Lungs supplement oxygen in shallow water + Also have gills- Fleshy, bony paired fins supported by extensions of the body skeleton- Pectoral and pelvic fins have articulations resembling limbs

168

What animals evolved from lobe finned fish with lungs?

Tetrapods - Likely evolved from Ichthyosthega or Acanthostega, specifically.

169

Ichthyostega & Acanthostega

#NAME?

170

Tetrapods

4 legged animals- Pelvic girdle bones + Attached to vertebral column- Limbs + Four limbs support weight on land- Feet with digits- Pharyngeal clefts + Give rise to inner ear

171

Tiktaalik

Extinct freshwater fish with lungs that walked and resembled crocodiles.

172

Class Amphibia

"Two lives"- Dual life cycle- Notochord replaced by body vertebral column- 3 chambered heart- Adults mostly terrestrial; tadpole larvae mostly aquatic- Lungs in terrestrial form and gills in aquatic- May be terrestrial, aquatic, or bothOrder- Anura- Urodela- Apoda

173

Order Anura

"Without tails" - Frogs- Adults are terrestrial- Head and trunk with no tail- Carnivorous adults- Carnivorous or herbivorous larvae- Tadpoles have gills and adults have lungs- Moist skin for gas exchange + Poorly developed lungs- Skin with toxin glands- Mostly nocturnal adults for moisture exposure- Pelvic girdle for jumping

174

Anura sexual reproduction

#NAME?

175

Amplexus

External fertilization behavior in frogs.

176

Order Urodela

"Tailed ones" - Salamanders- Tadpoles have external gills and adults have lungs (unless aquatic) + Aquatic adults may have gills or retain external gills (paedogenesis)- Head, trunk and tail- Moist skin that may be toxic- External and internal fertilization- Terrestrial, aquatic, or both- Terrestrial species with lungs are typically nocturnal for moisture exposure- Common in temperate areas

177

Order Apoda

"Legless" - Caecilians- Internal fertilization- Oviparous or viviparous- Aquatic larvae or no larvae- Live in tropical soils or streams- Burrowers- Blind- Carnivorous

178

Amniotic egg

Egg with an amnion and shell. Characteristic of amniotes (mammals, reptiles and birds).- Amnion- Allantois- Chorion- Yolk sac- Albumin

179

Amnion

Membrane that surrounds and protects the embryo. Amniotic cavity between it and the fetus protects against impacts and dehydration.

180

Allantois

Stores nitrogenous waste of the embryo.

181

Chorion

First membrane beneath the shell; serves for gas exchange.

182

Yolk sac

Encloses the yolk which provides nutrients.

183

Albumin is made of ___.

Protein

184

Skull types

#NAME?

185

Anapsida

#NAME?

186

Synapsida

#NAME?

187

Diapsida

#NAME?

188

Most biologists use ___ classification of amniotes.

Classical

189

Class Reptilia

- Tetrapods- Scales of keratin- Internal fertilization- 3 chambered heart + Crocodilians the exception with a 4 chambered heart- Well developed lungs- Well developed limbs but use lateral undulations- Eggs have embryonic membranes- Scales and scutes formed from epidermisOrders- Squamata- Testudines- Crocodilia- Sphenodontia

190

Squamata

Lizards, snakes and amphisbaenians

191

Testudines

Turtles and tortoises

192

Sphenodontia

Tuatara (only extant genus)

193

Ectotherms can control body temperature with their ___.

Behavior

194

Scales and scutes

#NAME?

195

Carrier's constraint

Lungs are pinched during locomotion.- Air is shunted from lung to lung- Characteristic of reptiles- Less air can be expelled and replaced, so reptiles must only move in short bursts.

196

Leathery eggs to prevent ___.

Desiccation, or drying out.

197

Some turtles can absorb oxygen through their ___.

Cloacas

198

3 chambered heart

Interventricular system is incomplete (ventricle not divided into 2 chambers such as in mammals and birds).

199

4 chambered heart

Anatomically complete interventricular septum.- Crocodilians, mammals and birds

200

Gopher tortoise

- Burrowing (4m deep and 12m long)- Defend burrows against other tortoises and intruders- Keystone species + Burrows provide shelter for over 360 other species of flora and fauna- 100 in the FAU preserve

201

Turtles lay ___ eggs than tortoises.

More

202

Dinosaurs

#NAME?

203

Archaeopteryx

#NAME?

204

Class Aves

- Feathers and scales of keratin- Skeleton with air cavities- Toothless beak- 4 chambered heart- Endothermic + Must eat all the time to regulate temperature- Keeled or flat sternum + Keeled in flying, flat in flightless- Lungs partitioned into air sacs for efficiency + Also help with singing- Great eyesight and color vision- Complicated courtship- Most are small and bland in color

205

Flightless birds

#NAME?

206

Class Mammalia

- 4 chambered heart- Modified teeth- Inner ear with bones + Better hearing than reptiles

207

Mammal teeth

From back to front:- Molars- Premolars- Canines- Incisors

208

Mammal ear bones

#NAME?

209

Reptiles only have a single ear bone, the ___.

Stapes

210

Subclass Prototheria

Monotremes- Means "first wild beast"- Echidna and Platypus- Oviparous- Milk with no nipples- Cloaca

211

Echidna

#NAME?

212

Platypus

- Australia- Freshwater bottom feeders- No teeth in beak- Venom in hind legs of males- 1-2 eggs that are brooded in burrows

213

Subclass Theria

Marsupials- Short development within uterus with placenta- Finish development in mother's pouch- Milk with nipples- Fast metabolism- Very abundant in Australia- Marsupium + The pouch

214

Prototharian mammals

Egg laying

215

Metatherian mammals

Marsupials

216

Eutherian mammals

Placental- Long development within uterus

217

Convergent evolution occurred between ___ and ___.

Marsupials, placentals

218

Order Primata

#NAME?

219

Prosimians

The first simians- Lemurs (Madagascar)- Tarsiers (SE Asia) + Carnivorous- Loris (SE Asia)

220

Simians

New world monkeys, old world monkeys and apes

221

Apes

#NAME?

222

New world monkeys

Oldest and least advanced. No advanced social organization unlike old world monkeys and apes.

223

Humans are most closely related to ___.

Bonobos

224

Proconsul

Ancestor of humans and other apes.- Evolved from insectivore rodent.

225

A. ramidus

"Ardi"- First bipedal hominid- Skeleton found from 4.4 million years ago- Body unlike chimps or humans- Teeth unlike chimps- Could walk erect and could also climb (mostly bipedal)- Omnivorous + Insects, small prey, fruits and roots

226

A. afarensus

"Lucy"- - Walked upright (completely bipedal)- Enlarged brain

227

Human evolution

#NAME?

228

H. habilus

First creators of tools- Means "able"

229

Bipedalism began ___ years ago.

4 million

230

H. erectus

First use of fire- Did not give rise to humans

231

H. neanderthalensis

First to due burials- Larger cranium than humans- Made different tools for separate uses

232

H. sapiens

First to create art

233

Homology

Shared ancestry in different species shown by similar structures or genes. - E.g., humans, dolphins, and bats all have similar limb structure with the same bone types.

234

H. ergaster

#NAME?

235

Human vestigial traits

#NAME?

236

Evidence of common ancestry

- Fossils- Morphological similarities- Homology- Vestigial traits- Similarity of the genes + 99% with chimps

237

Origin of modern humans hypothesis 1

"Out of Africa" hypothesis- H. erectus started in Africa. Those who left Africa died off while those who stayed evolved into H. sapien. H. sapien then spread and colonized. + Most likely correct

238

Origin of modern humans hypothesis 2

"Multiregional" hypothesis- H. erectus left Africa and evolved in all parts of the world to become H. sapien. + Likely incorrect due to similarity of H. sapiens in all different regions.