Flashcards in deck_1568964 Deck (238):
"Little rings"- Vermiform- Metamerism- Setae- Paired parapodia- Cerebral ganglia (brain) and ventral nervous cord- Muscles in all directions- Complete digestive system- Closed circulatory system + Dorsal and ventral vessels with 5 pumping vessels (heart)- Blood with hemoglobin + Causes red coloration- Metanephridia + One pair per segment- Trochophore larvae + Shared characteristic with mollusksClasses:- Polychaeta- Oligochaeta- Hirudinea
Replicated organs found within each segment.
"Almost feet"- Appendage containing the setae.- Paired in annelids.
Excretory organs (e.g., kidneys)
When the ___ muscles contract, setae protrude.
When the ___ muscles contract, setae withdraw.
"Many setae"- Well developed head- Evertable pharynx with jaws- One portion of parapodia modified as gills- Free-living + Sandworms + Fireworms- Tube-dwellers + Feather duster + Christmas tree worm- Sexual and asexual reproduction- Mostly dioecious
Polychaeta asexual reproduction
Regeneration of body parts.
Polychaeta sexual reproduction
- Sperm or egg found in specific body segments or in all segments.- Sperm or egg usually exit via the nephridiopores, though some may brood eggs within burrows or the coelom.- Epitoky (in tube-dwellers)
Earthworms - "Few setae"- Mostly freshwater and within moist soil; a few are marine- No parapodia- Posses tiny setae- Cerebral ganglia- Reduced head- Egg and sperm only found in certain segments- Hermaphrodites- Poorly developed head and sensory structures + Head only contains a mouth- Respiration via diffusion through the skin- Digestive system adapted for decomposition of organic matter + Crop and gizzard for grinding- Excrete waste through epidermis- Skeleton of water- Cerebral ganglia + Composed of a ring of nerve cells- Ganglia within the nerve cord and in each segment
Oligochaeta asexual reproduction
Oligochaeta sexual reproduction
Refers to earthworms:- Hermaphroditic with special segments for holding gonads.- Simultaneous sperm exchange- External fertilization + Fertilization occurs in the clitellum- Eggs released in a cocoon- Direct development + No larval stage
Ring of mucus on outside of that body in which sperm is deposited and fertilization occurs.
Leeches (many exceptions to the rules)- Ectoparasitic (blood-sucking), carnivorous, or scavengers + Possess local anesthetic to prevent pain and clotting.- Marine, freshwater, or terrestrial- Lack parapodia- Lack setae- Lack head appendage- Reduced coelom and segmentation- Same sexual reproduction characteristics as earthworms- No asexual reproduction- Dorsoventrally flattened with suckers on both ends.- Coelom reduced and filled with mesenchyme- Open circulatory system + Possess a heart with vessels that open to other tissues.- Complete digestive system- Complete excretory system
Less segmentation found in ___ than in ___.
- Possess characteristics of protostomes and deuterostomes. + Variable coelomate formation + Variable fate of the blastopore- Bilateral coelomates- Possess a lophophore- Protostome-like ribosomes- Mostly marinePhylums:- Phoronida- Bryozoa- Brachiopoda
Tube dwellers that create their own tube.
Horseshoe-shaped structure for feeding
"Jointed feet"- Largest animal group- Tagma- Open circulatory system containing heart with ostia, hemocoel, and hemolymph.- Complete digestive system with several pairs of mouthparts- Ventral nerve cord- Cuticle + Chitinous exoskeleton- Exoskeleton composed of separate plates- Epidermis + Secretes new chitin- Musculature + Flexors/extenders + Articulations - Joint muscles- Protostomes- Coelomates with reduced coelom- Molt- Variable respiratory systems
Fused segments of arthropods.Most have all 3:- Head (4 segments)- Thorax (4-6 segments)- Abdomen- E.g., dragonfly, bee.Some possess only 2:- Cephalothorax- Abdomen- E.g., spiders, lobsters.
Hormone responsible for molting.
Respiratory systems of Arthropoda
Little valve openings that allow the tissue fluid to go back to the heart.
Area containing the open circulatory system. - Not a cavity.
Blood-like liquid within the open circulatory system.
Arthropod coelom reduced to ___ and ___ ___.
Gonads, excretory organs
Arthropod coelom surrounds the ___ and ___.
Excretory systems of Arthropods
Anthropods have arteries leading to and from the heart to the ___ and ___.
Hollow tubes closed at one end. Found within the hemocoel and part of the digestive system. Filter metabolic/cellular waste by picking up uric acid, guanine, etc. and sending to the intestines to be excreted via the feces.
Green glands are always found in the ___ and in ___.
"Ocelli"- Able to see shadows and light- Characteristic of all animals with eyes
One axis (no branching)
Longer of the two axes.
Shorter of the two axes. May be modified into gills in some animals such as crabs.
Serrated and used for cutting. - Characteristic of insects and crustaceans
Contain fangs that are connected to a poison gland. Contain pedipalps. + Characteristic of Chelicerata
Appendages on chelicerae used to bring food to the mouth.
How are Arthropods classified?
Arthropoda asexual reproduction
Parthenogenesis - Unique to insects within Arthropoda + Characteristic of aphids - Typically used by organisms that grow very quickly.
Arthropoda sexual reproduction
No larval stage, all embryological development occurs within the egg. - Typically seen in terrestrial arthropods
Larval stage. - Typically seen in aquatic arthropods.
Trilobites- Common during Carboniferous Era- Benthic- Biramous- Antennae (one pair)- Left behind many fossils
Horseshoe crabs (Limulus polyphemus)- Subphylum Chelicerata- Cephalothorax, abdomen, and telson + Telson used to flip them over
Book lungs of spiders found on their ___ ___.
Spiders - Place their spermatophore inside of the female and haul ass.Scorpions - Place the spermatophore on the ground and dance to attract a female who will then pick it up with her opening.
Exit for sperm or egg.
Silk producing organ of spiders and some insects.
What order are camel spiders in?
Sea spiders- Not actually spiders- No abdomen + Organs extend into legs- Ovigerous legs in males- Live in corals
Legs modified for brooding eggs.
Crustacean cephalothoracic segmentation
- Eyes- 1st antennae (antennules) + Short- 2nd antennae + Long- Mandibile with 1st and 2nd maxillae (mouthparts); maxillae cover the mandible.
In crustaceans, the exopodites/gills are found beneath the ___.
Crustacean thoracic segmentation
- 1st, 2nd and 3rd maxillipeds (pairs) + Modified legs used as mouthparts- Chelipeds + First leg (claw)- Pereiopods (walking legs)
Crustacean abdominal segmentation
Crustacean larval forms
Order Copepoda (Crustacea)
Order Cirripedia (Crustacea)
Barnacles- Marine- Some are symbiotic- "Fouling" organisms + Accumulate on wet surfaces- Largest penis in relation to its size- Small filament legs inside of shell + Used for filter feeding- May have a peduncle + Muscular stalk that attaches to surfaces- May be hermaphroditic
Class Isopoda (Crustacea)
"Equal legs"- Marine with one exception + Pill bug is terrestrial but possess gills
Order Decapoda (Crustacea)
"5 pairs of walking legs"- Largest order of Crustacea- Marine- Lobsters, shrimps, and crabs.
Brooding in crabs
- Female carries fertilized eggs under abdomen.- Eggs hatch and zoea larvae emerge.- Zoea molt 5 times until the reach their second stage, megalops.- Megalops molts several times before forming into a young crab which will grow to maturity.
Differences between insects, chelicerates, and crustaceans.
Insects- 1 pair of antennae- 3 pairs of appendages- MandibleChelicerates- No antennae- 4 pairs of appendages- CheliceraeCrustaceans- 2 pairs of antennae- 5+ pairs of appendages- Mandible
Subphylum Uniramia, Class Insecta (Arthropoda)
Insecta also called "Hexapoda"- Largest animal group- 3 tagma + Head + Thorax + Abdomen- Urinamous appendages (hence subphylum name)- 3 pairs of legs- 1 pair of antennae- Most have 2 pairs of wings attached to thorax- Spiracles- Movement-sensing hairs- Undergo metamorphosis with instars (stages)- Die following reproduction
Holes that allow air to enter the trachea. Tracheal tubes get smaller as they go inward. Gasses leave the body through the tissues.
An animal is an adult when it is able to ___.
Undergo metamorphosis - Hemimetabolous - Holometabolous
Does not undergo metamorphosis. No larval stage.
Insects without wings
Metabolous insects are always ___.
Ametabolous insects are always ___.
Silverfish or bristletail
Ametabolous and apterygota. No larval stage, hatch as a smaller version of the adult and undergo molting.
Incomplete metamorphosis - Exopterygota - Nymph stages + Nymph hatches with no wings. Animal reaches adulthood when the wings grow to cover the entire abdomen.- E.g., roaches
Wings form on the outside of the body. - Characteristic of hemimetabolous organisms.
Complete metamorphosis - Endopterygota - Larva and pupa with cocoon stages
Wings form in pupa. - Characteristic of holometabolous organisms.
Pterygota feeding mechanisms
Pterygota feeding habits
Insect defense mechanisms
Insects are vital in order for ___ to occur.
One insect species is the only one able to lay eggs in a certain plant species that is ___.
Insecta (Hexapoda) reproduction
Asexual- Parthenogenesis + Characteristic of aphids - Both the parent and offspring are haploid.Sexual- Dioecious- Internal fertilization
Blow flies lay their eggs in ___.
Ants and aphids
Mutualistic relationship between the two. Ants eat sugar excreted from aphids and provide them with protection.
Beetles- First pair of wings used for protection- Second pair of wings used for flying
Flies- One pair of wings- Second pair of wings modified and extremely reduced
Wasps/Bees- Two pairs of membranous wings, both used in flight
Butterflies/moths- Scaly wings
Millipedes- Diplosegments + Two segments fused to create one segment - 2 pairs of legs per segment (4 legs total)- Herbivorous- Chewing mouthpart
Centipedes- One pair of legs per segment (2 total)- Predaceous- Fangs with venom- Live in dark, moist habitats such as under rocks and logs.- Bright colors to advertise danger
Velvet worms- Considered a possible "missing link" due to shared characteristics of both annelids and arthropods; may be an ancestor of either.- Terrestrial bottom-dwellers in rainforestsAnnelid characteristics:- Soft cuticle- Segmented nephridia- Non-jointed appendagesArthropod characteristics:- Hemocoel- Tracheae- Molt their cuticle- Feeding appendages
Asexual- Regeneration of lost arms arms- 1/5 of the disk must exist and should include a portion of the mouthSexual- Mostly dioecious- External fertilization- Planktonic larvae
Sea stars- Predaceous + Can destroy reefs- Two stomaches- Can exert stomach to pry open bivalves to feed on
Sea lilies and feather stars- Predaceous- Many branched out arms (resembling feathers)- Secondary radial symmetry
Brittles stars and basket stars- Body made of calcareous plates/shields
Sea urchins, sand dollars, and sea biscuits- Sea urchins: Radial symmetry- Sand dollars and sea biscuits: Tertiary bilateral symmetry- Urchins have well-developed, movable spines
Tertiary bilateral symmetry
Bilateral > Radial > Bilateral
Shell composed of the fused arms of Echinoidea
Sea cucumbers- Tertiary bilateral symmetry- Crown of tentacles by mouth + Tentacles are part of a modified water vascular system- Barely any ossicles- Can't feed after evisceration
Acorn worms- Marine- Burrowing- Proboscis + Modified for digging- Mouth positioned behind proboscis and before collar- Coelom- Pharyngeal gill slits + Gas exchange- Hollow nerve cord- Eat dirt- U-shaped burrow with mad poop at one end
Extension of the body passed the anal region.
Dorsal, hollow nerve cord
Bundle of nerve fibers which runs down the back. Connects the brain with lateral muscles and organs.- Created by the invagination of the ectoderm. Eventually becomes the nervous system.
Solid, cartilaginous rod which is flexible and supports the dorsal nerve cord.
Series of openings that connect the inside of the throat (pharynx) to the outside of the "neck." + May contain gills + Used in filter feeding by invertebrates using a layer of mucus.
Sea squirts and tunicates
- Larvae: Tadpoles that have all 4 chordate characteristics + Motile- Adult only has pharyngeal slits + Sessile- Loss of cephalization in adult- Tunic- Closed circulatory system with heart- Complete digestive system- Kidneys- Reduced coelom surrounds heart- Gas exchange through pharyngeal basket, skin, or other surfaces- Dioecious + External fertilization and possible regeneration
Exoskeleton composed of tunicin + Tunicin is composed of proteins and carbohydrates and grows with the animal
Seasquirt, tunicate and larvacean adult feeding method
Filter feedersIncurrent (buccal) siphon > pharyngeal slits that form a pharyngeal basket > mucus accumulates in endostyle, esophagus, stomach, intestine, and anus.
Seasquirt, tunicate and larvacean adult path of water circulation
Incurrent siphon > pharyngeal basket > atrium > atriopore
Thaliaceans and larvaceans
- Adult maintains all 4 chordate characteristics.- Filter feed using "mucus house." + House is discarded regularly and eaten by other organisms.- Planktonic- Feed on phytoplankton- Resemble tadpole larvae- Adults are motile
Algae are a type of ___.
"Head chordata" - Lancelets (other groups are extinct)- Larvae and adults show all 4 chordate characteristics- Pelagic larvae- Adult partially buried- Adults have a poorly developed head with long trunk and tail.- Myomere- Reduced coelom- Dorsal and ventral fins (not paired)- Closed circulatory system + No heart- Dioecious- External fertilization (mostly)- Native species: Brachiostoma floridae
Segments of muscles allowing for lateral movement.
Adult lancelet characteristics
Complete digestive system- Ventral mouth with tentacles > pharynx with slits > intestine > anusPath of water- Buccal siphon > pharyngeal slits > endostyle > atrium > atrioporeRespiration- Most likely through skin or intestines
Evolution of vertebrate chordates
Vertebrate evolution hypothesis A
Ancestral vertebrate chordate evolved from cepholocordate-like (lancelet) animal.- P. slits used for filter feeding- Swam with lateral undulations- Possessed brain but no craniumEvidence- Lancelet adults have 4 chordate characteristics- Lamprey larvae resemble lancelet larvae
Vertebrate evolution hypothesis B
Vertebrates evolved from Urochordates- Believed to have occurred through paedogenesis.
- Hollow, dorsal nerve cord- Notochord + Becomes vertebral column and intervertebral disks.- P. slits + Contain gills in aquatic animals and close in terrestrial.- Post anal tail + Characteristic of most vertebrates- Brain with cranium (cartilage/bone)- Neural crest- Extreme cephalization with sensory organs in the head and dorsal nervous system- Mineralization (ossification) of body structures- Endoskeleton- Respiratory system of gills, lungs and/or skin- Complete digestive system- Kidneys- Well-developed muscles
Fate of the germ layers
Ectoderm- Nervous and sense organs; epidermis; pituitary gland (when present)Mesoderm- Notochord; skeleton; muscles; circulatory system; excretory system; reproductive system; outer layers of digestive systemEndoderm- Lining of the digestive tube and structures that develop from it such as the lining of the respiratory system
"Jawless fishes"- Lampreys, hagfish, and Ostracoderms- Circular mouth
- Marine/freshwater- Feed on blood- Persistent notochord- Cartilaginous cranium- No true bony skeleton- Single fins or no fins- No scales- One or no appendages- 2 chambered heart- Dioecious or monoecious + External fertilization
Pharyngeal slits held open and in place by ___ ___.
Evolution of the jaw
Skeletal rod 3 became the upper jaw and skeletal rod 4 attached it to the cranium.
"Plate skinned"- Extinct- Jawed fish- Ossified plates + Not seen in extant species- Paired fins- Ossified jaws
Sharks, rays, ratfish and chimeras- Ancestors had bones so they are considered vertebrates (cartilage is non-ossified).- Notochord persists- Sub-terminal mouth- Paired fins- 2 chambered heart- Mostly ectothermic- Lateral line + Detects pressure- Ampullae of Lorenzini + Detects electricity- Placoid scales + Unique to this class- No operculum + Ratfish are an exception- No swim bladder- Oils in liver regulate buoyancy- Mostly dioecious- Internal fertilization with eggs and few offspring- Heterocercal caudal fin + Top portion longer than bottom
Male chondrichthyans have ___ and both male and females have a ___.
Shark scales contain ___ and ___.
Chrondrichtheans with shark-like bodies.- Have an operculum- Feed like fish
Egg hatches within the mother; live bearing.
Humans killed over ___ shark last year.
Went extinct between 12-30 million years ago; only teeth have been found.
- Notochord persistent- Skeleton at least partially ossified- 2 chambered heart- Paired fins- Terminal mouth- Mostly dioecious + Oviparous with external fertilization- Homocercal caudal fin + Top same size as bottom- Scales formed from dermis
Ray finned fish- Gars- Sturgeons- Teleosts
- Primitive group- Ganoid (bony) scales- Cartilaginous skeleton- Torpedo shaped body- May live p to 50 years- May reach 14 ft.- Marine but spawn in freshwater- Opportunistic bottom feeders
Smooth outer edge
Toothed outer edge
Sea horses and pipefishes
Lobe finned fish- Coelocanths- Lungfishes + Lungs supplement oxygen in shallow water + Also have gills- Fleshy, bony paired fins supported by extensions of the body skeleton- Pectoral and pelvic fins have articulations resembling limbs
What animals evolved from lobe finned fish with lungs?
Tetrapods - Likely evolved from Ichthyosthega or Acanthostega, specifically.
Ichthyostega & Acanthostega
4 legged animals- Pelvic girdle bones + Attached to vertebral column- Limbs + Four limbs support weight on land- Feet with digits- Pharyngeal clefts + Give rise to inner ear
Extinct freshwater fish with lungs that walked and resembled crocodiles.
"Two lives"- Dual life cycle- Notochord replaced by body vertebral column- 3 chambered heart- Adults mostly terrestrial; tadpole larvae mostly aquatic- Lungs in terrestrial form and gills in aquatic- May be terrestrial, aquatic, or bothOrder- Anura- Urodela- Apoda
"Without tails" - Frogs- Adults are terrestrial- Head and trunk with no tail- Carnivorous adults- Carnivorous or herbivorous larvae- Tadpoles have gills and adults have lungs- Moist skin for gas exchange + Poorly developed lungs- Skin with toxin glands- Mostly nocturnal adults for moisture exposure- Pelvic girdle for jumping
Anura sexual reproduction
External fertilization behavior in frogs.
"Tailed ones" - Salamanders- Tadpoles have external gills and adults have lungs (unless aquatic) + Aquatic adults may have gills or retain external gills (paedogenesis)- Head, trunk and tail- Moist skin that may be toxic- External and internal fertilization- Terrestrial, aquatic, or both- Terrestrial species with lungs are typically nocturnal for moisture exposure- Common in temperate areas
"Legless" - Caecilians- Internal fertilization- Oviparous or viviparous- Aquatic larvae or no larvae- Live in tropical soils or streams- Burrowers- Blind- Carnivorous
Egg with an amnion and shell. Characteristic of amniotes (mammals, reptiles and birds).- Amnion- Allantois- Chorion- Yolk sac- Albumin
Membrane that surrounds and protects the embryo. Amniotic cavity between it and the fetus protects against impacts and dehydration.
Stores nitrogenous waste of the embryo.
First membrane beneath the shell; serves for gas exchange.
Encloses the yolk which provides nutrients.
Albumin is made of ___.
Most biologists use ___ classification of amniotes.
- Tetrapods- Scales of keratin- Internal fertilization- 3 chambered heart + Crocodilians the exception with a 4 chambered heart- Well developed lungs- Well developed limbs but use lateral undulations- Eggs have embryonic membranes- Scales and scutes formed from epidermisOrders- Squamata- Testudines- Crocodilia- Sphenodontia
Lizards, snakes and amphisbaenians
Turtles and tortoises
Tuatara (only extant genus)
Ectotherms can control body temperature with their ___.
Scales and scutes
Lungs are pinched during locomotion.- Air is shunted from lung to lung- Characteristic of reptiles- Less air can be expelled and replaced, so reptiles must only move in short bursts.
Leathery eggs to prevent ___.
Desiccation, or drying out.
Some turtles can absorb oxygen through their ___.
3 chambered heart
Interventricular system is incomplete (ventricle not divided into 2 chambers such as in mammals and birds).
4 chambered heart
Anatomically complete interventricular septum.- Crocodilians, mammals and birds
- Burrowing (4m deep and 12m long)- Defend burrows against other tortoises and intruders- Keystone species + Burrows provide shelter for over 360 other species of flora and fauna- 100 in the FAU preserve
Turtles lay ___ eggs than tortoises.
- Feathers and scales of keratin- Skeleton with air cavities- Toothless beak- 4 chambered heart- Endothermic + Must eat all the time to regulate temperature- Keeled or flat sternum + Keeled in flying, flat in flightless- Lungs partitioned into air sacs for efficiency + Also help with singing- Great eyesight and color vision- Complicated courtship- Most are small and bland in color
- 4 chambered heart- Modified teeth- Inner ear with bones + Better hearing than reptiles
From back to front:- Molars- Premolars- Canines- Incisors
Mammal ear bones
Reptiles only have a single ear bone, the ___.
Monotremes- Means "first wild beast"- Echidna and Platypus- Oviparous- Milk with no nipples- Cloaca
- Australia- Freshwater bottom feeders- No teeth in beak- Venom in hind legs of males- 1-2 eggs that are brooded in burrows
Marsupials- Short development within uterus with placenta- Finish development in mother's pouch- Milk with nipples- Fast metabolism- Very abundant in Australia- Marsupium + The pouch
Placental- Long development within uterus
Convergent evolution occurred between ___ and ___.
The first simians- Lemurs (Madagascar)- Tarsiers (SE Asia) + Carnivorous- Loris (SE Asia)
New world monkeys, old world monkeys and apes
New world monkeys
Oldest and least advanced. No advanced social organization unlike old world monkeys and apes.
Humans are most closely related to ___.
Ancestor of humans and other apes.- Evolved from insectivore rodent.
"Ardi"- First bipedal hominid- Skeleton found from 4.4 million years ago- Body unlike chimps or humans- Teeth unlike chimps- Could walk erect and could also climb (mostly bipedal)- Omnivorous + Insects, small prey, fruits and roots
"Lucy"- - Walked upright (completely bipedal)- Enlarged brain
First creators of tools- Means "able"
Bipedalism began ___ years ago.
First use of fire- Did not give rise to humans
First to due burials- Larger cranium than humans- Made different tools for separate uses
First to create art
Shared ancestry in different species shown by similar structures or genes. - E.g., humans, dolphins, and bats all have similar limb structure with the same bone types.
Human vestigial traits
Evidence of common ancestry
- Fossils- Morphological similarities- Homology- Vestigial traits- Similarity of the genes + 99% with chimps
Origin of modern humans hypothesis 1
"Out of Africa" hypothesis- H. erectus started in Africa. Those who left Africa died off while those who stayed evolved into H. sapien. H. sapien then spread and colonized. + Most likely correct