Flashcards in Kingdom Plantae Deck (35):
Alternation of Generations
Two different life cycles.
Fertilization -> Sporophyte (2n) -> Meiosis -> Spore(n) -> Gametophyte(n) -> Mitosis -> Gametes(n) -> Fertilization
Haploid generation that produces gametes through mitosis.
Diploid generation that produces haploid spores through meiosis.
Gamete producing structures
Male, sperm-producing gametangia
Female, egg-producing gametangia
Produce haploid spores
Sporophyte and gametophyte generations look identical
Sporophyte and gametophyte generations look different.
Descriptive, non-taxidermic category for plants belonging to three different Divisions.
Division Bryophyta, Anthocerophyta and Hepatophyta
Lack vascular tissue.
Dominance of gametophyte generation
Thought to have evolved from algae
Unable to regulate water balance but can go dormant when exposed to drought.
Mnium, Polytrichum, Sphagnum
Have phyllids and caulids
Monoecious and dioecious
Leaf-like structures spirally arranged on caulids
Stem-like structures containing phyllids
Both antheridia and archegonia are present in same plant
Separate male and female gametophytes
Liverworts (Marchantia, Porella, Conocephalum, Riccia)
> 9,000 species worldwide
Great diversity of body forms
Some contain phyllids and caulks
Sperm have two flagella and require water to swim
Anchor plant on its substrate, but do not conduct water and nutrients to the plant.
Not true roots, no vascular tissue
> 300 species
Get name from long, hornlike sporangia
Sporophyte gen. can outlive gametophyte gen.
Have true stomata in epidermis
Seedless Vascular Plants
Contain true xylem and phloem
Can control their water balance
Have true roots that can absorb water
Life cycles are dominated by sporophyte gen.
True vascular tissue to distribute water from roots throughout the plant
Distribute the products of photosynthesis to plant tissues
Club Mosses (Selaginella, Lycopodium)
Moist environments (Selaginella also found in deserts, often called "resurrection plant")
Often resemble small pine tress
Have true roots, stems and leaves
Club or cone-shaped sporangia on their stems called strobili.
Homospory and heterospory
Clusters of spore-bearing leaves called sporophylls
Spore mother cells undergo meiosis to produce one type of spore
When two different types of spores are produced.
Megaspores and microspores
Larger spores that germinate to form female gametophytes
Smaller spores that germinate to form male gametophytes
Only one genus and species remain
Huge tree-size reps. were common during age of Dinosaurs.
Strobili resemble tapered ends of horses' tails
Cell walls contain silica
Often called "scouring rushes"
Whisk Ferns and Classic or "True" Ferns
Sometimes divided into own Division (Psilophyta).
Very common in Florida
Very simple and primitive in appearance
May resemble very earliest vascular plants on Earth
Lack true roots
Usually participate in symbiotic relationship with fungus
Classic or "True" Ferns
Well represented in Florida
> 12,000 species
Some "resurrection ferns"
Tree ferns can grow more than 60 feet in height, while smallest aquatic ferns can be 1 - 2 cm.
Only group in which evolution appears to be ongoing
Have true leaves called fronds
Grow along underground rhizome
Top of sporangium is hygroscopic.
True leaves (mature)
Generally large, macrophylls.
Compound in form and divided.
One fertile frond can release millions of spores per year
True leaves (immature)
Curled form of a young frond before unfurling
Can live for hundreds of years