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Anatomy and Physiology > Kingdom Plantae > Flashcards

Flashcards in Kingdom Plantae Deck (35):
1

Alternation of Generations

Two different life cycles.
Fertilization -> Sporophyte (2n) -> Meiosis -> Spore(n) -> Gametophyte(n) -> Mitosis -> Gametes(n) -> Fertilization

2

Gametophyte

Haploid generation that produces gametes through mitosis.

3

Sporophyte

Diploid generation that produces haploid spores through meiosis.

4

Gametangia

Gamete producing structures

5

Antheridia

Male, sperm-producing gametangia

6

Archegonia

Female, egg-producing gametangia

7

Sporangia

Produce haploid spores

8

Isomorphic Generations

Some algae.
Sporophyte and gametophyte generations look identical

9

Heteromorphic Generations

Land plants
Sporophyte and gametophyte generations look different.

10

Bryophytes

Descriptive, non-taxidermic category for plants belonging to three different Divisions.
Division Bryophyta, Anthocerophyta and Hepatophyta
Lack vascular tissue.
Dominance of gametophyte generation
Thought to have evolved from algae
Evolutionary dead-end
Unable to regulate water balance but can go dormant when exposed to drought.

11

Division Bryophyta

Mosses
>14,000 species
Mnium, Polytrichum, Sphagnum
Have phyllids and caulids
Monoecious and dioecious
Contain rhizoids

12

Phyllids

Leaf-like structures spirally arranged on caulids

13

Caulids

Stem-like structures containing phyllids

14

Monoecious

Mnium
One house
Both antheridia and archegonia are present in same plant

15

Dioecious

Polyteichum
Two houses
Separate male and female gametophytes

16

Division Hepatophyta

Liverworts (Marchantia, Porella, Conocephalum, Riccia)
Simplest Bryophytes
> 9,000 species worldwide
Great diversity of body forms
Some contain phyllids and caulks
Contain rhizoids
Sperm have two flagella and require water to swim

17

Rhizoids

Anchor plant on its substrate, but do not conduct water and nutrients to the plant.
Not true roots, no vascular tissue

18

Division Anthocerophyta

Hornworts
> 300 species
Get name from long, hornlike sporangia
Sporophyte gen. can outlive gametophyte gen.
Have true stomata in epidermis

19

Seedless Vascular Plants

Contain true xylem and phloem
Can control their water balance
Have true roots that can absorb water
Life cycles are dominated by sporophyte gen.
Three Divisions

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Xylem

True vascular tissue to distribute water from roots throughout the plant

21

Phloem

Distribute the products of photosynthesis to plant tissues

22

Division Lycophyta

Club Mosses (Selaginella, Lycopodium)
Moist environments (Selaginella also found in deserts, often called "resurrection plant")
Often resemble small pine tress
Have true roots, stems and leaves
Club or cone-shaped sporangia on their stems called strobili.
Flagellated
Homospory and heterospory

23

Strobili

Clusters of spore-bearing leaves called sporophylls

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Homospory

Spore mother cells undergo meiosis to produce one type of spore

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Heterospory

When two different types of spores are produced.
Megaspores and microspores
Selaginella.

26

Megaspores

Larger spores that germinate to form female gametophytes

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Microspores

Smaller spores that germinate to form male gametophytes

28

Division Sphenophyta

Horestails (Equisetum)
Only one genus and species remain
Huge tree-size reps. were common during age of Dinosaurs.
Strobili resemble tapered ends of horses' tails
Cell walls contain silica
Often called "scouring rushes"

29

Division Pterophyta

Ferns
Whisk Ferns and Classic or "True" Ferns

30

Whisk Ferns

Psilotum
Sometimes divided into own Division (Psilophyta).
Very common in Florida
Very simple and primitive in appearance
May resemble very earliest vascular plants on Earth
Lack true roots
Usually participate in symbiotic relationship with fungus

31

Classic or "True" Ferns

Well represented in Florida
> 12,000 species
Some "resurrection ferns"
Tree ferns can grow more than 60 feet in height, while smallest aquatic ferns can be 1 - 2 cm.
Only group in which evolution appears to be ongoing
Have true leaves called fronds
Grow along underground rhizome
Top of sporangium is hygroscopic.

32

Fronds

True leaves (mature)
Generally large, macrophylls.
Compound in form and divided.
One fertile frond can release millions of spores per year

33

Fiddlehead

True leaves (immature)
Curled form of a young frond before unfurling

34

Rhizome

Horizontal stem
Can live for hundreds of years

35

Hygroscopic

Sensitive to the presence of water