Kingdom Fungi Flashcards Preview

Anatomy and Physiology > Kingdom Fungi > Flashcards

Flashcards in Kingdom Fungi Deck (23):
1

Phylum Zygomycota

Zygote Fungi
> 600 species
Hyphae grow vertically and form sporangia
Dung loving and phototrophic

2

Rhizopus stolonifer

Phylum Zygomycota
Black bread mold

3

Pilobolus crystallinus

Phylum Zygomycota
Dung-loving (coprophilous)
Phototrophic
Spores are propelled off the hyphae as a single unit
"shotgun fungus"

4

Phylum Ascomycota

Sac Fungi
Many do not fit description but produce 4 or 8 haploid spores through meiosis kept in sac-like regions called ascu
Spores are called ascospores
Asexual reproduction leads to spores called conidia formed on conidiophores.
> 60,000 species found
morels, truffles, yeasts

5

Aspergillus

Phylum Ascomycota
known to cause infections or allergic reactions in humans
> 100 species identified

6

Peziza

Phylum Ascomycota
Typical cup-like appearance
Tend to grow on decaying plants, animals and dung

7

Ophiostoma

Phylum Ascomycota
Certain species cause Dutch elm disease

8

Cryphonectria

Phylum Ascomycota
Almost wiped out American chestnut

9

Claviceps purpurea

Phylum Ascomycota
Ergot fungus
parasitizes rye and wheat grass
known to cause convulsive ergotism in humans and animals

10

Penicillium

Phylum Ascomycota
One species produces penicillin
Others are used in production of cheeses (brie, bleu, gorgonzola and roquefort)
Commonly known as molds

11

Phylum Basidiomycota

Club fungi
Only reproduce sexually
Mushrooms, puffballs, stinkhorn fungus, fairy rings, shelf fungi and cup fungi.
> 25,000 species
Reproductive structure called basidium

12

Stipe

stalk or stem of mushroom

13

Basidiocarp

body of a mushroom

14

Pileus

cap on top of mushroom

15

Gills

contain basidia which produce basidiospores

16

Phylum Deurteromycota

Imperfect fungi
Only reproduce asexually
Cause athlete's foot, ringworm and "yeast" infections (Candida albicans)
Used to make some cheeses

17

Symbiotic Associations of Fungi

Parasitic
Mutualistic
Commensalistic

18

Mycorrhizae

Mutualistic association of fungi and plant roots
Include a number of species from phyla Zygomycota, Ascomycota and Basidiomycota.
Fungus = food through photosynthesis
Plant = nutrients absorbed by fungus

19

Lichens

Mutualistic association of fungi and algae or cyanobacteria
Mainly species from phyla Ascomycota and Basidiomycota.
Tend to look like one organism instead of two.
> 25,000 species identified
Fungus = photosynthetic nutrients
Algae = proper environment for growth

20

Three types of Lichens

Foliose - leaf-like
Crustose - crust-like
Fruticose - shrubby

21

Foliose

Leaf-like appearance. Generally brown or golden in color. Tend to grow vertically and spread out along the surface they are attached to.

22

Crustose

Crust-like appearance. Tend to grow flat along the surface of trees or rocks.

23

Fruticose

Tend to have a cup- or club-shaped reproductive structure from ascomycetes or basidiomycetes involved in relationship. Tend to have branching and cylindrical appearance. Some are brightly colored.