Kingdom Animalia Flashcards Preview

Anatomy and Physiology > Kingdom Animalia > Flashcards

Flashcards in Kingdom Animalia Deck (53):
1

Phylum Porifera

Sponges
Invertebrate
Asymmetrical
Lack true tissue/organs
Sessile.
Support: spicules, spongin
Osculum = opening for filtration
Spongocoel (central cavity) with choanocytes = pull in H2O for food collection

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Phylum Cnidaria

Diploblastic
Radial symmetry
Gastrovascular cavity (food digestion)
No gills
Cnidocytes with nematocysts
Three classes: Hydrozoa, Scyphozoa and Anthozoa

3

Cnidocytes

Stinging cells containing nematocysts

4

Nematocysts

Stinging organelles

5

Class Hydrozoa

Polyps and medusae
Marine and freshwater
Hydra
Portuguese man-o-war (Physalia physalis)

6

Class Scyphozoa

True jellies
medusa stage only
marine and fresh water
moon jelly (Aurelia aurita)

7

Class Anthozoa

Corals
Sea anemones
marine only
polyp stage only

8

Phylum Ctenophora

Comb jellies
Invertebrate
Diploblastic
Biradial symmetry
8 rows of comb like plates (cilia)
Planktonic
Marine, predatory, simple nervous system, no nematocysts (but can steal them)

9

Phylum Platyhelminthes

Flatworms
Three Classes: Trematoda, Cestoda and Turbellaria
Invertebrate
Triploblastic
Bilateral
Acoelomate
Protostome
One digestive opening (incomplete digestive tract)
No respiratory system
Free-living or parasitic

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Class Trematoda

Flukes
Parasitic
Complex life cycles (multiple hosts)

11

Class Cestoda

Tapeworms
Intestinal parasites with proglottids and scolex

12

Class Turbellaria

Flatworms (Degusia)
Freshwater and marine
Moist environments
Planaria
2 eyespots and 2 auricles

13

Phylum Rotifera

Rotifers
Invertebrate
Triploblastic
Bilateral
Pseudocoelomate
Protostome
Freshwater, marine, interstitial
Complete digestive tract
4 regions: head, neck, trunk, foot
Corona: draws water in for feeding
Cryptobiosis: survive long periods in unfavorable conditions

14

Phylum Nemotoda

Nematodes, roundworms (Ascaris)
Invertebrate
Triploblastic
Bilateral
Pseudocoelomate
Protostome
Free-living and parasitic
Complete digestive tract
Cuticle
Lateral line

15

Phylum Mollusca

2nd largest phylum
Most complex phylum
Four classes: Polyplacophora, Gastropoda, Bivalvia, Cephalopoda
Invertebrate
Triploblastic
Bilateral
Eucoelomate
Protostome
Usually well developed head
Some with advanced vision
Complete digestive tract
Radula (scraping)
All have: foot, shell, mantle, visceral mass

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Class Polyplacophora

Chitons
8 plates on shell
Curl into ball

17

Class Gastropoda

Snails, slugs, etc
Most abundant
Torsion during development
Operculum (protection)

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Class Bivalvia

Oysters, mussles, clams, etc
Hinged shell (umbo)
Siphons
No radula

19

Class Cephalopoda

Nautilus, cuttlefish, squid, octopus
Most advanced
Tentacles
Most lack external shells
Well developed nervous system with large brain
Advanced vision
Beaks
Closed circulatory system

20

Phylum Annelidia

Earthworms
Two Classes: Oligochaeta and Polychaeta
Invertebrate
Bilateral
Eucoelomate
Protostome
Segmented
Setae/parapodia
Closed circulatory system

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Class Oligochaeta

Earthworms (Lumbricus)
No parapodia
Few setae
Marine, terrestrial, freshwater

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Class Polychaeta

Polychaetes, clam worms (Nereis)
Most abundant annelids
Mostly marine
Free-living or tube-dwelling

23

Phylum Arthropoda

Largest phylum (1 million known species, mostly insects)
Invertebrates
Triploblastic
Bilateral
Protostomes
Found everywhere
All have: segmentation, an exoskeleton (protection, muscle attachment, prevent desiccation) and jointed appendages
Molting occurs
Cephalization with neural and respiratory development
Open circulatory system (hemolymph)

24

Subphylum Trilobitomorpha

Phylum Arthropoda
Trilobites (extinct)
Possible ancestors to Subphylum Cheliceriformes

25

Subphylum Cheliceriformes

Phylum Arthropoda
Chelicerae = feeding appendages
6 pairs of appendages
Cephalothorax (head and thorax fused)
Two Classes: Merostomata and Arachnida

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Class Merostomata

Horseshoe crabs (Limulus)
Marine
Medically important
Male/female dimorphism
Book gills
Telson = tail for steering

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Class Arachnida

Spiders, scorpions, ticks, mites, etc.
One pair of chelicerae
One pair of pedipalps
Four pairs of legs
Book lungs

28

Subphylum Uniramia

Phylum Arthropoda
Jaw-like mandibles
One pair of antennae (sensory)
One pair of compound eyes
Unbranched appendages
Three classes: Diplopoda, Chilopoda, Insecta

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Class Diplopoda

Millipedes
Fused pairs of trunk segments
Two paired appendages per segment

30

Class Chilopoda

Centipedes
One paired appendage per segment
Flattened

31

Class Insecta

Butterflies, moths, bees, flies, termites, etc.
Largest class
Wings
Trachea system (gas exchange)
Spiracles (prevent desiccation)
Hemocoel
Malpighian tubules (excretory)

32

Subphylum Crustacea

Phylum Arthropoda
Crabs, lobsters, shrimp, barnacles, copepods, etc
Most are marine
Three or more paired appendages
Biramous (claws)
Two pairs of antennae

33

Class Malacostraca

Subphylum Crustacea
Crabs, lobsters, shrimp, etc
60% of crustaceans
Tripartite (3 segments: head, thorax, abdomen)

34

Phylum Echinodermata

Sea stars, brittle stars, sea cucumbers, sea lilies, sea urchins, sea biscuits, etc
Invertebrates
Triploblastic
Pentaradial symmetry as adults; bilateral as larvae
Eucoelomate
Deuterostomes

35

Class Asteroidea

Phylum Echinodermata
Sea stars
Gonads and digestive tracts in arms
Regeneration
Oral and aboral surfaces
Dermal branchiae and pedicellariae (removal of debris from body)
Water vascular system
Madresporite (water intake)
Tube feet

36

Phylum Chordata

42,000 Known species
HIghest diversity is coral reefs of south pacific and equatorial rain forests
All share 5 characteristics:
1. Notochord
2. Post-anal tail
3. Pharyngeal gill pouches
4. Dorsal, hollow nerve chord
5. Endostyle/thyroid

37

Subphylum Hemichordata

Phylum Chordata
Acorn worms
Only possess pharyngeal gill slits

38

Subphylum Urochordata

Phylum Chordata
Tunicates, sea squirts
Larval form = all characteristics
Adults = gill slits and endostyle

39

Subphylum Cephalochordata

Phylum Chordata
Amphioxus
All characteristics throughout life
Paedomorphic: larva reaches sexual maturity

40

Subphylum Vertebrata

Phylum Chordata
Cephalization
Endoskeleton (segmented): protects nerve cord. Cartilage or bone
2 pairs of jointed appendages (exception: snakes and some amphibians)
Outer protective tissue
Pisces: all fish=like groups
Tetrapods: terrestrial groups
Agnathans: jawless
Gnathostomes: jawed

41

Class Agnatha

Subphylum Vertebrata
About 75 species
Lamprey = freshwater or marine
Hagfish = marine
All jawless with cartilaginous skeletons
No paired fins
Single nostril
2 chambered heart

42

Class Chondrichthyes

Subphylum Vertebrata
About 800 Species
Sharks, skates, rays
Mostly marine
Paired fins and nostrils
Heterocercal tails
Placoid scales
Lateral line
Males with claspers
Types of birth: viviparous, ovoviviparous, oviparous

43

Viviparous

Live birth

44

Ovoviviparous

Egg hatched internally, followed by live birth

45

Oviparous

Hatched from an egg

46

Class Osteichthyes

Subphylum Vertebrata
Largest vertebrate class: about 24,600 species
Bony fishes
Streamlined and fusimorm (large in middle)
Covered with dermal scales (except eels)
Lateral line
Swim bladder

47

Class Amphibia

Subphylum Vertebrata
4300 species
Frogs, toads, salamanders, newts, caecilians
Reproduction dependent on water
Metamorphosis
3 types of respiration: lungs, gills, skin
3 chambered heart
Ectothermic

48

Class Reptilia

Subphylum Vertebrata
About 6700 species
Turtles, crocodilians, lizards, dinosaurs = sort of
Amniotic egg
Ectothermic
3 or 4 chambered heart
Protective, dry scales

49

Class Aves

Subphylum Vertebrata
About 8800 species
Birds
Evolved from dinosaurs
Endothermic
4 chambered heart
Air sacs for respiration
Large cerebellum = flight modifications
3 feather types: Flight, down, filoplumes

50

Class Mammalia

Subphylum Vertebrata
All have:
Body hair
Mammary glands
Live birth (except monotremes) with placental development
Endothermy
4 chambered heart
diaphragm

51

Subclass Monotremata

Class Mammalia
Platypus, echidna
Oviparous with cloaca

52

Subclass Marsupiala

Class Mammalia
Kangaroos
Pouched mammals; young born undeveloped

53

Subclass Eutheria

Class Mammalia
Placental animals
Young born fully developed