Flashcards in deck_1619335 Deck (39):
What is the kidney surrounded by?
• Renal capsule • Perinephric fat • Renal fascia
What are the two main layers of the kidney?
• Renal cortex • Renal Medulla
Describe the sequential structure of the nephron
• Renal corpuscle • Proxima convoluted tubule • Loop of Henle • Distal convoluted tubule
What is the renal corpuscle made up of?
• Vascular pole - Afferent/efferent arterioles, glomerulus • Urinary pole - Bowman's capsule
What structures make up the collecting system of the urinary system?
• Ureter • Bladder • Urethra
Name the two main structures found in the renal cortex
• Renal corpuscles • Proximal convoluted tubules
Name the two structures which make up the renal corpuscle
• Bowman's capsule • Glomerulus
In embryological terms, where is the primitive renal tubule derived from?
• The ureteric bud
What does the primordium of the true kidney eventually envelop?
What is meant when we say that the glomerulus has a vascular pole
• Afferent and efferent arterioles
What is the urinary pole of the renal corpuscle?
• Bowman's capsule
What is the function of bowman's capsule?
• To produce ultrafiltrate of plasma
Outline the cellular structure of bowman's capsule's parietal and visceral layers
• Simple squamous epithelium
What is the filtration barrier of bowman's capsule produced by?
• Capillary endothelium and visceral layer of bowman's capsule
What is a podocyte?
• Modified epithelium which allow ultrafiltration
How is the parietal layer of bowman's capsule adapted to collect ultrefiltrate
• Forms a funnel to collect the ultrafiltrate which drains into the proximal convuluted tubule at the urinary pole
What type of capillary endothelium exists in the bowman's capsule
What does the investment of podocytes around capillary endothelium allow the formation of?
• Filtration slits, spaces between the podocyte processes (feet) • Very leaky!
What is the proximal convoluted tubule?
• Longest, most convoluted section of the tubule • Point at which reabsorption begins
What is the epithelium of the proximal convoluted tubule?
• Simple cuboidal epithelium with pronounced brush border
What are the four parts of the loop of henle?
• Pars recta • Thin descending limb • Thin ascending limb • Thick ascending limb
How are the parts of the loop of henle described?
• Basis of appearance/epithelial lining
Describe the route of the thin limb of the loop of henle
• Dips down into the medulla
Describe the cell type and what exactly occurs functionally in the thin descending part of the loop of henle
• Simple squamous epithelium ○ No active transport ○ Looks a lot like a small capillary but there are no red blood cells ○ No brush border
What is the cell type and what occurs functional in the thick ascending part of the loop of henle?
• Simple cuboidal epithelium • Active transport
Where is the distal convoluted tubule found?
• Cortex, makes contact with its parent glomerulus
How does the epithelial lining of the thick ascending limb compare to the proximal convoluted tubule?
• No brush border • Simple cuboidal
How does the DCT compare to the PCT?
• No brush border • Larger lumen
What does the juxtaglomerular apparatus consist of?
• The macula densa of distal convoluted tubule • The juxtaglomerular cells of afferent arteriole of glomerulus • Extraglomerular mesangial cells (lacis cells)
What is the collecting duct a continuation of?
• Distal convoluted tubule
Where is the collecting duct found?
What is the collecting duct similar in appearance to?
• Loop of henle
How does the collecting duct differ from the loop of henle?
• Lumen is larger and tends to be more irregular than circular
How do collection ducts for the renal pyramid empty?
• Into the renal papilla
Describe the smooth muscles of the ureter?
• Two layers for the first 2/3, 3 for the lower 1/3
What is the ureter lined by?
• Transitional epithelium
How many layers of muscle in the bladder?
• 3 layers
What is the epithelium of the bladder?