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Flashcards in deck_1665818 Deck (5):

What are the three most likely causes of dark brown urine in a woman?

UTIAcute tubular necrosis``


What investigations are done to assess renal status?

Dipstick of urine - blood, protein. MSU - exclude urine infection; find out if urine suggests nephritis - RBCs in urine, red cell cast Serum creatinine and urea - exclude acute renal failure Serum sodium and potassium - exclude hyperkalemia which may be urgently life threatening Ultrasound of kidneys - ensures no evidence of CKD, exclude severe parenchymal renal infection, abscess


What investigations are done to assess infection?

Haemoglobin - normochromic anaemia White cell count and differential - neutrophilia - but not specific for infection Blood culture Chest radiograph - pneumonia can occur without physical sign CRP - along with other acute phase proteins not diagnostic; often raised in immune disease, higher in infection MSU and blood cultures [repeated] - no growth Hb 100.5 g/L, WCC 16x109/L - 90% neutrophils CxR – normal


How can lupus be investigated?

Anti nuclear antiboidiesLow C3 and C4


What physical signs are compatible with volume depletion?

sunken eyes dry nose or mouth mucous membrane longitudinal furrows on the tongue