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Flashcards in deck_1665818 Deck (5):
1

What are the three most likely causes of dark brown urine in a woman?

UTIAcute tubular necrosis``

2

What investigations are done to assess renal status?

Dipstick of urine - blood, protein. MSU - exclude urine infection; find out if urine suggests nephritis - RBCs in urine, red cell cast Serum creatinine and urea - exclude acute renal failure Serum sodium and potassium - exclude hyperkalemia which may be urgently life threatening Ultrasound of kidneys - ensures no evidence of CKD, exclude severe parenchymal renal infection, abscess

3

What investigations are done to assess infection?

Haemoglobin - normochromic anaemia White cell count and differential - neutrophilia - but not specific for infection Blood culture Chest radiograph - pneumonia can occur without physical sign CRP - along with other acute phase proteins not diagnostic; often raised in immune disease, higher in infection MSU and blood cultures [repeated] - no growth Hb 100.5 g/L, WCC 16x109/L - 90% neutrophils CxR – normal

4

How can lupus be investigated?

Anti nuclear antiboidiesLow C3 and C4

5

What physical signs are compatible with volume depletion?

sunken eyes dry nose or mouth mucous membrane longitudinal furrows on the tongue