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Biology LC Revision (Mine) > Definitions > Flashcards

Flashcards in Definitions Deck (115)
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1

Immobilised enzyme

An enzyme that is attached or fixed to another enzyme or an inert material.

2

Bioprocessing

The use of enzyme-controlled reactions to produce a product

3

Bioreactor

A vessel in which biological reactions take place

4

Denatured enzyme

A denatured enzyme is an enzyme that has lost its shape and can no longer function

5

Selectively permeable membrane

Allows only certain molecules to pass through it

6

Diffusion

The spreading out of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration

7

Osmosis

The movement of water across a semi-permeable membrane from an area of high water concentration to an area of low water concentration

8

Active site

The part of an enzyme that combines with the substrate

9

Turgor

The outward pressure of the cytoplasm and the vacuole against the cell wall

10

Plasmolysis

The loss of water from the cytoplasm and the movement of the cell membrane from the cell wall

11

Cell continuity

All cells develop from pre-existing cells

12

Chromosomes

Chromosomes are coiled threads of DNA (which forms genes) and protein. Role: They carry genes.

13

Gene

A section of DNA that contains the instructions for the formation of a protein

14

Haploid cell

A haploid cell has one set of chromosomes (n)

15

Diploid cell

A diploid cell had two sets of chromosomes (2n)

16

Homologous pair

A pair of two chromosomes of similar size with the same sequence of genes

17

Cell Cycle

The cell cycle describes the changes that take place in a cell during the period between one cell division and the next

18

Interphase

The phase in the cell cycle when the cell is not dividing. It is the longest phase in the cell.

19

Mitosis

A form of nuclear division in which one nucleus divides to form two nuclei, each containing the same number of chromosomes with identical genes

20

Cancer

Cancer occurs when cells lose the ability to control the rate of mitosis and the number of times mitosis takes place

21

Tumour

A tumour results when a cell (or group of cells) lose the ability to control the rate of mitosis

22

Metastasis

The movement of malignant cells

23

Meiosis

Meiosis is a form of nuclear division in which the four daughter nuclei contain half the chromosome number of the parent nucleus

24

Diploid number

The total number of chromosomes in a cell

25

Autotropism

An organism makes its own food

26

Photosynthetic organism

Uses light to make food

27

Chemosynthetic organism

Uses energy from chemical reactions to make food

28

Heterotropism

An organism takes in food made by other organisms

29

Saprophytic organism

Takes in food from dead organic matter
They allow for mineral recycling

30

Parasites

Organisms that take in food from a live host and usually cause harm