The Human Organism Flashcards Preview

Biology LC Revision (Mine) > The Human Organism > Flashcards

Flashcards in The Human Organism Deck (46)
Loading flashcards...
1

What does A+ (A positive) blood indicate?

This red blood cell is in blood group A and has the Rhesus chemical on it.

2

Why is the Rhesus factor important?

For safe blood transfusions

3

What are the main blood groups?

A, B, AB, O

4

Describe red blood cells

•No nuclei (when mature)
•No mitochondria
•Biconcave shape (to give a larger surface area)

5

What are mature red blood cells called?

Blood corpuscles

6

What colour is haemoglobin?

Purple

7

What colour is oxyhaemoglobin?

Bright red

8

Describe lymphocytes

•Made in bone marrow
•Mature in lymphatic tissue
•Stored in spleen, lymph nodes, tonsils, adenoids and thymus gland
•Large round nucleus with very little cytoplasm

9

Structure of a monocyte

•Kidney-shaped nucleus

10

What is the need for a circulatory system?

To supply cells with all the materials they require

11

Benefits of a closed circulatory system

•Moves blood around the body faster
•Allows alterations in blood flow to different body organs

12

Why are animals with a closed circulatory system considered to be more active?

Blood is pumped around the body faster, allowing nutrients and oxygen to de distributed faster to the cells

13

Location of the heart

Located between the two lungs, slightly to the left-hand side of the thorax, just above the diaphragm

14

Structure of the heart

•Made of cardiac muscle
•Surrounded by double membrane called pericardium

15

Benefits of a double-circulation system

•Allows oxygenated and deoxygenated blood to be kept separate
•Ensures that the blood pressure is high enough to reach all parts of the body

16

Why does the aorta have thicker walls?

Blood entering the aorta is under high pressure due to the contraction of the left ventricle

17

What glands are associated with the digestive system?

•Salivary gland
•Liver
•Gall bladder
•Pancreas

18

What glands are associated with the digestive system?

•Salivary gland
•Liver
•Gall bladder
•Pancreas

19

What glands are associated with the digestive system?

•Salivary gland
•Liver
•Gall bladder
•Pancreas

20

Where is bile made and stored?

Made in the liver, stored in the gall bladder

21

What does the duodenum do?

Produces a range of digestive enzymes

22

What enters the duodenum?

The products of the pancreas and liver

23

What does sodium bicarbonate do in the pancreas?

Neutralises acid (chyme)

24

By what process is food absorbed?

Diffusion

25

Adaptations of villi for absorption

•Large numbers (increase surface area)
•Thin walls
•They have a rich blood supply to carry away water-soluble products

26

Adaptations of small intestine for absorption

•Has numerous villi and microvilli
•Walls of villi are thin
•It is very long

27

What are the four food groups?

•Cereals, bread and potatoes
•Fruit and vegetables
•Milk, cheese and yoghurt
•Meat, fish and poultry

28

To what vein do the venules in the villi lead to?

Hepatic portal vein

29

Location of the respiratory system

Thoracic cavity/Thorax

30

Why is breathing through the nose beneficial?

The nose filters, moistens and warms the air