Degenerative and demyelinating diseases Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Degenerative and demyelinating diseases Deck (6)
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Alzheimer's disease (AD)

-Affects memory, perception, judgement and visual/spatial
-Due to changes is hippocampus (first to change), frontal, and parietal lobes
-Bilateral atrophy of gyro and widening of sulci
-Ex-vacuo hydrocephalus due to loss of tissue
-Nucleus basalis meyret loss (main source of Ach in CNS)
-Due to abnormal aggregation of tau proteins (a normal component of microtubules) into insoluble neurofibrillary tangles (intracellular, alpha helices)
-Also from neuritic plaques: extracellular accumulations of amyloid-beta protein forming amyloid fibrils


Pick disease

-Mostly frontal and temporal lobes affected
-There is personality changes, reduced judgement, aphasic/trouble with words (can't speak properly)
-Due to cytoplasmic aggregates of abnormally spliced tau


Huntington disease (HD)

-Affects the basal ganglia, the caudate (flattened), outer walls of ventricle (flattened), and cortex (shrinks)
-Sx include depression, dementia, chorea, personality changes
-On CT and PET you see both loss of tissue and brain activity
-There is loss of grey matter only, along w/ reactive gliosis
-Characteristics: "milk maid" grip, high incidence of family history, triple codon repeats accelerate onset of HD


Parkinson disease (PD)

-Affects the catecholaminerigc neurons in the substantia nigra (DA neurons)
-There is dorsal motor nucleus of X and cortical loss
-Histologic feature: lewy body (alpha-synuclein)


Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)

-Affects CST, motor cortex, cranial nerve motor neurons (UMN lesions), anterior horn cell loss (LMNs), and spinocerebellar neurons
-Usually see UMN lesion Sx (increased reflexia)


Multiple sclerosis (MS)

-Oligodendrocytes are primarily targeted, some of the damage done is reversible
-Random loss of myelin, heavy involvement of optic nerve
-Can see perivascular macrophages and T cells
-Also have oligoclonal bands in blood samples

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