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Flashcards in Dementia and Ageing Deck (17):
1

Diagnostic factors of sarcopenia?

Decreased muscle mass (DXA)
Slow gait speed over 4m

2

R/Fs for sarcopenia?

Increased age
Lack of exercise
High/low BMI
Inflammation
Low protein diet

3

Sarcopenia management?

Exercise, dietary supplementation, Vit D

4

Risks for falls in the elderly?

Sarcopenia
Dementia
Alcohol use
Low BP/postural hypotension
Infection

5

Fall complications?

Fractures
Rhabdomyolysis - can lead to kidney failure
Head injury - delirium, bleed (any head injury on warfarin should have a head CT)

6

Types of delirium?

Hypoactive delirium

Hyperactive delirium

7

Forms of dementia?

Alzheimers

Vascular dementia (MMI dementia)

Lewy body dementia

Fronto temporal dementia

8

Definition of sarcopenia?

Progressive generalised loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength with age

9

Factors that account for the maintenance of muscle mass?

Anabolic hormones e.g. testosterone

Growth factors e.g. GH

Vit D

Physical activity

10

Factors that account for the reduction in muscle mass in sarcopenia?

Catabolic hormones e.g. Glucagon, steroids

Inflammatory mediators e.g. cytokines

Obesity

11

Changes to muscle tissue with age?

Decline in both muscle fibre size and number

Single muscle fibre intrinsic force is decreased

12

Definition of frailty?

Increased vulnerability to stressors associated with a decline in physical and psychological reserves

13

Consequences of sarcopenia?

Disability and poor mobility
Falls and fractures
Cardiovascular disease
Reduced quality of life
Hospital admission

14

Features of a diet that may prevent sarcopenia?

Higher antioxidant status

High Fish oil consumption

Greater fruit and vegetables

15

Pharmacotherapy for sarcopenia?

GH

Testosterone (maybe)

ACE (maybe)

16

Way to remember causes of delirium?

DELIRIUM(S)

Drugs
Eyes/ears
Low O2
Infection
Retention
Ictal state (seizure)
Undernourished/underhydrated
Metabolic
Subdural haematoma

17

Pharmacological choices for delirium management?

Haloperidol
olanzipine
Benzos
Cholinesterase inhibitors