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What is the lifetime prevalence of depression?



How many depressed patients seek treatment?



Anxiety and Substance abuse are what to depression?



Who is more likely to be depressed? gender?

>= 65 years old. 

Women are more likely than men 


What are the risk factors of depression?

Who is most likely to complete suicide?

  • Gender- Female
  • 18-29 and >65 
  • Family history 
  • Prior episodes of depression or suicide attempt
  • Comorbid psychiatric illness
  • Social Stressor 



How is the onset of depression presented?

The symptoms gradually develop over days 


Risk of Reoccurrence 

  • 1 episode: 
  • 2 episodes
  • 3 episodes

Pts with recurrent depression are at an increase risk for what? 








What is the monoamine hypothesis?

These hypotheses dont explain what?

Lack of DA, 5-HT, and NE

The lag time for antidepressants to take effect



What are the target signs and symptoms of depression?

At least one of these needs to be?

  • Depression 
  • Sleep (insomnia, hypersomnia)
  • Loss of interest
  • Guilt
  • Energy loss
  • Loss of concentration
  • Loss or gain appetite
  • Psychomotor (agitation or retardation)
  • Suicide

One either Depression or loss of interest


Differential Diagnosis of Major Depressive disorder?

  • Bipolar affective disorder (manic symptoms)
  • Substance-induced mood disorder
  • Mood disorder caused by general medical condition
  • Dementia 
  • Dysthymia- Greater than two years of depressed mood
  • Adjustment disorder with depressed mood


What are the common medical conditions that are associated with depression?

  • Hypothyroidism
  • Heart disease CHF, MI
  • Post stroke
  • Parkinsons 
  • Alzheimers
  • AIDS
  • Anemia
  • Anxiety disorder 
  • Schizophrenia
  • Alcholism 
  • Eating disorder



Monamine Oxidase Inhitors

  • Phenelzine (Nardil)
  • Tanylcyprmine (Parnate)
  • Selegiline (EmSam)- Patch 



Tertiary Amine TCAs name them

What do they cause more of?

  • Amitriptyline
  • Doxepin
  • Imipramine

Cause more SEs all TCAs are primarily used off label for sleep and pain disorders in adults 


Secondary Amine TCAs

  • Protriptyline
  • Nortriptyline
  • Despiramine 



What are the key points when providing TCAs?

Whats dangerous


Who to avoid in?

  • They are Dangerous in overdose
  • Cardiac and Anticholinergic SEs- Dry mouth, constipation, 
  • Avoid in elderly 


What are the SSRIs?

  • Citalopram (celexa)
  • Escitalopram (Lexapro)
  • Fluaxetine (Prozac, Prozac weekly, Sarafem)
  • Fluvoxmine (Luvox, ER)- only for OCD
  • Paroxetine (Paxil and CR) - Mild anticholinergic, Avoid in elderly
  • Sertraline (Zoloft) 



SNRIs used in Depression

  • Venlafaxine (Effector, XR)
  • Desvenlafaxine (Pristiq)
  • Duloxetine (DM neuropathy) - Cymbalta
  • Levomilnacipran (Fetzima)


SEs for SNRIs and SSRIs 

What is the Key take away with the Side Effects


  • S- Stomach (N/V/D)- Due to receptors in gut
  • S- Sexual Dysfunction
  • R-Restlessness
  • I-Insomnia
  • Headache
  • Weight gain can be a good thing
  • Withdrawal from abrupt discontinuation 

Most of these SEs stop after 1-2 weeks

Except for sexual dysfunction and Weight Gain


Citalopram Special SEs?

What doses to avoid?

What about old people?

  • QTc prolongation
  • avoid dose > 40 mg 
  • Patients > 60 should avoid dose > 20 


SNRIs have been know to increase?

Diastolic BP


Duloxetine has a?

Should be avoided in?

  • LFT warning
  • Avoid use in patients with pre-existing liver insufficiency and alcoholics 


Withdrawal reactions with SNRIs and SSRIs

  • Agents with short half lifes- SNRIs but also some SSRIs
  • Dizziness, Insomnia, fatigue, anxiety, agitation, nausea, vomit, sweating, tingling, sensory disturbances (Brainzaps)
  • Taper dose when disconituing 


Mertazapine (Rameron) 

Interacts with?

AEs due to histamine blockade?


Clonadine interaction

AE- Somnolence, weight gain, Constipation, Lower risk of sexual dysfunction than SSRIs


Bupropion (Wellbutrin)



Could worsen and known to cause? Should be taken when?

  • Insomnia, Tremor, Nervousness, dry mouth
  • Contra in seizures and eating disorders
  • Can worsen anxietym known to cause insomnia so take in the morning


Multiple Serotonin Effector drugs that act like a SSRI + Buspirone?

Do you take either of them with food?

What types of SEs do these show?

  • Vilazodone (Viibryd) - Take with food - Partial Agonist 
    • High rates of Nausea and Diarrhea, Less sexual Dysfunction
  • Vortioxetine (Trentillix) 
    • High rates of Nausea, Sexual Dysfunction 


This drug is a mized serotonin actor and may cause hepatotoxicity what is the drug

 what should be monitored and what is it an Inhibitor of?

What other Side effects can this drug cause?

Nafazodone, LFTs should be monitored and it is a potent inhibitor of CYP3A4

  • Dizziness, Orthostatic hypotension, dry mouth, nausea 


This drug is typically sedating and is mainly used to treat insomnia. What is the drug what SEs does it have?

  • Dizziness, Orthostatic hypotension, dry mouth, nausea 
  • Trazodone


When selecting an antidepressent what 9 things should you take into account?

  1. Past treatment success
  2. Family treatment history if it worked for a family member it has a good chance of working for then and vice versa
  3. Patient preference is important if they think something will work the placebo effect will help it work
  4. Convience like a once a day med, if someone is having to take it BID there is a good chance of non adherance
  5. Drug interactions should always be taken into consideration
  6. Adverse effects
  7. Safety and overdose. Example- A drug like Trazadone has a overdose potential plus if someone has overdosed on something before you never want to give it to them again
  8. Existing medical condition, hepatoxicity type 
  9. Cost lucky most SSRIs are low cost 


What antidepressant are 2D6 Inhibitors?

Buproprion, Fluoxetine, Paroxetine



What antidepressant are 3A4 inhibitors?

Nefazodone, Fluvoxamine