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Flashcards in Dermatology continued Deck (45):
1

What are the 4 steps of the approach to a dermatology patient?

1. collect a dermatologic history
2. perform dermatologic examination
3. generate a problem list and list of DDX
4. perform appropriate diagnostic tests based on DDX

2

What are 12 important questions to ask?

1. breed
2. symptoms
3. age
4. length of disease, progression
5. seasonal?
6. parts of body affected, where started
7. other clinical signs
8. food
9. other animals? symptoms?
10. previous treatment and response
11. parasite control
12. last medication and bath

3

Why is important to know the breed?

certain breeds are predisposed to certain diseases
persian cat--dermatophytosis

4

Why is important to know the breed?

certain breeds are predisposed to certain diseases
persian cat--dermatophytosis

5

Why is important to know the symptoms?

b/c different symptoms point toward different diseases: like alopecia without pruritus indicates demodicosis or endocrine skin disease while pruritic dermatitis with skin that appears normal indicates atopci dermatitis. Presence or absence of dermatitis is very important

6

why is it important to know age?he

young animals more likely to have congenital or hereditary defetcts, parasites or dermatophytes, old animals more likely to have allergy of neoplasia and middle aged animals more likely to have allergy or hormonal disease

7

why is important to know duration and progression?

because sarcoptes, fleas and other parasites usually cause rapid onset of severe pruritus, while allergic skin diseases usually progress more slowly

8

why is important to know if disease is seasonal?

atopic dermatitis, flea allergy dermatitis, cyclic flank alopecia can be cyclic

9

why is important to know the sites of of the body affected?

because certain diseases affect different regions of the body
Tail and rump most likely for flea allergy dermatitis

10

Why is important to know if there are other clinical signs?

because atopic dogs may exhibit upper resp symptoms or more bowel movements indicates food allergy. PU/PD, lethargy indicates endocrine disease

11

Why is important to know if there are other clinical signs?

because atopic dogs may exhibit upper resp symptoms or more bowel movements indicates food allergy. PU/PD, lethargy indicates endocrine disease

12

Why does it matter if other animals are affected?

contagious

13

Why does it matter if the disease was treated?

need to see if animal improved

14

why does it matter if parasite control was used?

fleas etc can be ruled in ruled out

15

Why does it matter when the animal last used medication or were given baths?

because recent administration may alter clinical appearance and result of tests. Cytology, skin biopsies, bacterial and fungal cultures and allergy tests can be affected by medications

16

What does pain on opening the mouth suggest?

otitis media

17

What does pain on opening the mouth suggest?

otitis media

18

What should the pinnae be examined for?

alopecia, excoriation, crusts

19

What should the ear canal be palpated for?

thickening and mineralization

20

what does otoscopic examination allow?

visual assessment of the vertical ear canal and typmanic membrane

21

What is the normal appearance of the ear canal and tympanic membrane?

1. ear canal is pink and smooth with a small amount of wax
2. tympanic membrane is semi-transparent and slightly concave. the lower transulcent part is the pars tensa and the malleus is visible somewhat rostrally

22

What should the abnormal ear canal be checked for?

1. erythema
2. discharge
3. degree of stenosis
4. proliferation/hyperplasia of the ear canal lining and ulceration

23

What are primary dermatologic lesions?

1. macule
2. papule
3. pustule
4. vesicle
5. wheal
6. nodule
7. tumor

24

What are lesions that may be primary or secondary/

alopecia

25

What are lesions that may be primary or secondary?

1. alopecia
2. scale
3. crust
4. follicular cast
5. comedo
6. hyperpigmentation

26

What are secondary dermatologic lesions?

1. epidermal collarette
2. erosion
3. ulcer
4. lichenification
5. fissue

27

What are 15 dermatological techniques

1. skin cytology
2. aspirates
3. skin scraping
4. clear tape preparation
5. flea examination
6. trichogram
7. wood's lamp examination
8. dermatophyte fungal culture
9. bacterial or fungal culture
10. skin biopsy
11. intradermal allergy testing
12. serum testing for allergen-specific IgE
13. Bloodwork and endocrine testing
14. elimination diet trial
15. ectoparasite treatment trial

28

Why do skin cytology?

Tells more about what is going with the skin and quickly.

29

How is cytology collected?

1. impression
2. swab
3. scraping
4. tape

30

Why do aspirates?

useful for assessing nodules, tumors and cysts
can find content of lesions without surface contamination

31

Why do skin scrapings?

indicated for mite and louse infestations.

32

Why do skin scrapings?

indicated for mite and louse infestations.

33

Why do clear tape preparation?

To find some surface dewllers like cheyletiella, lice, poultry mites adn fur mites

34

How can you find fleas?

by parting hair on caudal dorsum and turning pet over, using flea comb or looking for flea feces

35

How is a trichogram performed

by using forceps to forcefuly pluck hair and place a drop of mineral oil and examine under low power

36

What is Wood's lamp used for?

to find microsporum canis dermatohyte infections--50% cause apple-green fluorescence of trpytophan metabolites under UV lights

37

When is culture indicated?

1. deep pyoderma
2. numerous rod-shaped bacteria

38

Why do skin biopsies?

1 when dealing with serious or poorly responsive skin disease
2. if neoplasia, immune mediated disease or conditions only found on histology are suspected.
3. if skin lesions appear unusual
4. to rule out uncommon differential diagnoses

39

Why is intradermal allergy testing performed?

1/ in pets diagnosed with environmental allergies (atopic dermatitis)

40

Why is intradermal allergy testing performed rarely in general practice?

1. it takes a lot of experience
2. maintaining test kits is quite expensive

41

Why is intradermal allergy testing performed rarely in general practice?

1. it takes a lot of experience
2. maintaining test kits is quite expensive

42

Why is intradermal allergy testing performed rarely in general practice?

1. it takes a lot of experience
2. maintaining test kits is quite expensive

43

What is serum testing for allergen-specific IgE used for?

to quntitate circulating allergen-specific IgE levels. not used to diagnose atopic dermatitis, but to ID offending environmental allergens

44

What is an elimination trial used for?

It is the only way to evaluate food adverse reactions in dogs and cats

45

What is an ectoparasite treatment trial?

The animal is treated with drugs that are eliminate parasites and can rule out parasites as cause or contributor to pruritus