Large animal GI Flashcards Preview

clinical exam and diagnosis > Large animal GI > Flashcards

Flashcards in Large animal GI Deck (32):
1

What are 8 important questions for ruminant GI disease history?

1. housing
2. diet
3. production-related problems
4. previous illness
5. single animal or multiple affected
6. feed intake
7. deworming
8. previous treatments

2

What are 5 parts of signalment in ruminants?

1. breed
2. age
3. gender
4. intended use (stage of production)
5. body condition (in sheep have to touch!)

3

What is important to do for every dairy cow?

urinalysis
CMT
+/- repro exam if calved recently

4

When do you see clinical signs of dehydration? What level of dehydration is deadly?

>5%, >12%

5

Why may an abdomen be distended?

1. gas
2. fluid
3. impacted material

a. rumen
b. abomasum
(occasionally omasum)

6

What is ballotment?

A palpatory technique for detecting or examining an organ not near the surface of the body: in this case

7

What can be detected by ballottment

1. fluid due to
a. GI stasis
b. peritoneal fluid
c. ruptured bladder

8

What is ballotment?

A palpatory technique for detecting or examining an organ not near the surface of the body

9

What can be detected by ballottment

1. fluid due to
a. GI stasis
b. peritoneal fluid
c. ruptured bladder
2. mass
a. feed impaction
b. fetus
c. tumor

10

What are two methods to look at pain response (indication of traumatic reticuloperitonitis)

1. withers pinch test
3. ballottment or pressure over xiphoid region

for both listen over trachea for a grunt

11

How many times does the rumen contract per minute?

1.5-3/minute

12

What is succussion?

ballotting while auscultating--can hear fluid sounds (sloshing, splashing)

13

What causes a ping on the left?

an LDA

14

What causes a ping on the right. What do they sound like?

1. spiral colon causes a small dull ping
2. RDA causes a more metallic ping and extends more cranially past the last rib
3. cecal distention: may cause a bit of a metallic ping

15

Why is rumen palpation done?

to examine rumen layering

16

What can be detected by rectal palpation

1. presence of feces and consistency/volume
2. rumen
3. left kidney
4. intestinal tract
5. masses
6. gas distension
7. fluid
8. volvulus
(9. maybe RDA)

17

What are 7 clinical pathology tests that can be done?

1. CBC (inflam)
2. biochemistry (electrolyte imbalances)
3. blood gas
4. urinalysis
5. rumen fluid analysis
6. paracentesis

18

What are two 2 reasons to do fecal examination?

1. diagnosis
2. disease control (salmonella)

19

What are 5 characteristics of feces that can be determined?

1. consistency
2. colour
3. particle size
4. foreign material
5. parasites

20

What are 4 tests that can be done on feces to get a diagnosis of diarrhea?

1. culture
2. PCR
3. toxin assay
4. fecal egg count

21

What are 4 reasons to tube a ruminant?

1. relieve bloat
2. administer fluid
3.

22

What are 4 reasons to tube a ruminant?

1. relieve bloat
2. administer fluid
3. transfaunation
4. collect fluid

23

What is the colour, consistency, odor, pH, protozoal activiy, gram stain, chloride concentration of rumen

1. olive, brownish green
2. slightly viscous
3. aromatic, strong odor
4. multiple forms, active motion
5. predominantly gram negative
6.

24

Paracentesis can be used to diagnose what? Is it always useful?

1. diagnose peritonitis
2. may or may not be useful because the peritonitis can be walled off

25

What are two ways the alimentary tract can be imaged?

1. radiography
2. ultrasonography

26

What are two ways the alimentary tract can be imaged?

1. radiography
2. ultrasonography

27

how can hardware disease be detected with ultrasonography? with radiography?

1. ultasonography: can put probe just caudal to xiphoid or a little left and look to see if the reticulum moves--fluid or lack of movement is indicative of reticuloperitonitis
2. radiography: with radiographs of the caudal lungs may be able to see the wire

28

How can use diagnose small intestinal distention with ultrasound?

look from right body wall

29

When is exploratory laparotomy be donw? how is it done?

can be used as a diagnostic tool in non-specific GI lesions, particularly dairy cattle

standing procedure

30

What are 5 special considerations for camelids?

1. their body condition cannot be determined by distance exam, must touch
2. very good at hiding clinical signs
3. very social and so can be easily stressed
4. assess management and feeding practices because often hobby farms may have parasites or improper feed
5. the stomach has 3 compartments

31

What is C3 of camelids prone to?

ulcers

32

What is the function of C1, C2 in camelids?

fermentation, nutrient/water absorption, feed transit