Flashcards in Determinism/Free Will Deck (18)
There is an important link between Free Will and what?
What did Kant believe?
Kant believed that humans are free to make moral decisions/choices which is what sets apart humans from animals.
Some people believed how we act is according to genes but how conclusive is this?
In terms of genetic finding in science so far there is little conclusion but newspapers look at a 'gay gene' or 'criminal gene'.
B.F.Skinner argued moral behaviour did not take into account what?
Science, Skinner valued human attitude and social control over scientific findings.
In society there are countless ways someone can be influenced but what is a arrangement where an individual gains from being part of a group?
Libertarians can be view in two ways what are they?
1. We are morally responsible for our actions
2. They view liberty and rights in light of individuals and communities.
John Stuart Mill outlined a importance for what in his book?
Free Speech, individuals shouldn't have opinions crushed by others or the state. To John Stuart Mill, individuality/identity is part of what a good life is all about.
When an individual is forced to do something who is this a crime against?
It is a crime against all human beings not just the individual.
Who suggests that in Islam centrality of revelation is crucial in understanding conscience?
What does St Paul in the New Testament describe conscious as?
An awareness of right and wrong.
Who saw consciousness a way of distinguishing between right and wrong but found mistakes were found when attempting to do so?
St Thomas Aquinas
Joseph Butler saw conscience as a final moral decision maker but what two principles were humans influenced by?
'Self-love' and 'Benevolence' (for others).
What did Sigmund Freud were basic human desires?
The human psyche, but children quickly learn that the world restricts these.
Who argued that the belief that we have freedom is ignorant of the real courses behind directions?
Who's definition of hard determinism is this and apply an analogy to the idea:
"hard determinism outlines all actions have a prior cause"
Ted Honderich and this definition is like a train or a tram along a pre-laid path.
Who was Clarence Darrow?
Clarence Darrow was an American attorney who defended two boys of murder on the grounds that they were victims of the upbringing. This resulted in them having a shorter sentence.
Who's experiment is a good example of conforming to authority?
Stanley Milgram with re-enacting 1930s Nazi torture methods.