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Flashcards in Development Deck (12):
1

Name the milestones for gross motor development.

1-2 months: neck control
2-4 months: no head lag
4-5 months: tripod sitting
6 months: sitting without support
9 months: crawling
10-12 months: stands with support +/- cruising
12 months: stands without support; walks without support
15 months: walks steadily
24 months: jumps on both feet
36 months: stands on one feet
48 months: jumps on one feet

2

Name the milestones for fine motor development.

2 months: fix and follow for 180 degrees
4 months: reach out
4-6 months: palmar grasp
6 months: bimanual manipulation
7 months: transfer
10 months: mature pincer grasp
12-15 months: scribbling
16 months: tower of 2
24 months: tower of 6; imitates a line
30 months: tower of 8
36 months: imitates a circle
42 months: imitates a cross
48 months: imitates a square

3

Name the milestones for hearing and speech development.

3 months: cooing; turns to rattle
4-6 months: turns to voice
7-10 months: dada and mama (specific)
12 months: single words with meaning
12-18 months: one-step command with no gestural cues
24 months: two word phrases with meaning
24-30 months: gives name
36 months: names 3 colours; 3-4 word phrases
60 months: no articulation problem

4

Name the milestones for social development.

1-2 months: social smile
6 months: mouthing; responds to name
8-11 months: stranger anxiety
8-12 months: shakes head to imply no
10-12 months: waves bye bye; plays peak-a-boo (object pertinence)
12 months: symbolic play
24 months: parallel play (imitation)
36 months: interactive play

5

What will a normal 6-month-old baby be able to do?

- Sit without support
- Stable palmar grasp with bimanual manipulation
- Cooing; turns to voice
- Social smile, mouthing and responds to name

6

What will a 12-month-old baby be able to do?

- Stand and walk unstably without support
- Mature pincer grasp
- Single meaningful words
- Obeys one-step command with no gestural cues
- Stranger anxiety, waves bye bye with object pertinence (peak-a-boo)
   +/- symbolic play

7

What will an 18-month-old baby be able to do?

- Walking steadily without support
- Scribbling (dotting); builds a tower of 2
- Single meaningful words
- Obeys one-step command with no gestural cues
- Stranger anxiety, symbolic play

8

What will a 24-month-old baby be able to do?

- Walk steadily without support; jump with two feet
- Scribbling and draws line, builds a tower of 6
- Two-word phrases
- Obey two-steps command with no gestural cues
- Stranger anxiety; parallel play

9

What will a 36-month-old child be able to do?

- Walk up stairs with two feet on one step at a time
- Stand on one foot
- Draws a circle; builds a tower of 8 or more
- 3-4 word phrases
- Names 3 colours
- Interactive play

10

What are the possible causes of global developmental delay?

Prenatal
- Congenital
   >> Syndromal: Down, Fragile X
   >> Metabolic: IEM, hypothyroidism
   >> CNS disorders: neurocutaneous syndrome, brain malforamtions
- Acquired
   >> Maternal alcohol or drug use
   >> Congenital infections
   >> Fetal hemorrhage in utero

Perinatal
- Obstetric
   >> Extreme prematurity
   >> Birth asphyxia/HIE
- Fetal causes
   >> Hypoglycemia
   >> Kernicterus

Postnatal (almost all acquired)
- Infection
   >> Meningitis
   >> Encephalitis
   >> Cerebral abscess
- Trauma
   >> Non-accidental
   >> Accidental
   >> Hypoxia
- Vascular
   >> Neonatal stroke
   >> Hemorrhage
   >> AVM
- Metabolic
   >> Hypoglycemia
   >> Kernicterus
   >> Inborn errors of metabolism
- Psychosocial
   >> Child abuse
   >> Child neglect

11

What is global developmental delay?

Performance significantly below average in two or more areas of development

12

What are the three types of language delay in children?

1. Receptive delay 2. Expressive delay 3. Mixed