Flashcards in Development and health Deck (19)
Name 7 physical/environmental factors that spread malaria
-Temp between 15 and 40c
-Large areas of shade (usually under trees)
-Areas of still/stagnant water (provide breeding areas)
-Drought conditions (concentrated use of wells increases infection rate)
-Overcrowded living areas (mosquitoes thrive and spread parasites in large groups)
-Climate change, rising temps have been expanding mosquitoes breeding grounds
-Flooding and other natural disasters
Name 8 human factors that spread malaria
-Poor levels of education (people are ignorant on how to protect themselves)
-Poverty (people can't afford protection methods)
-Mass immunisation not possible
-Poor levels of nutrition
-Many people in the one place
-Collapse of public health care (no organised anti-malaria programmes)
-Mosquitoes are becoming immune/ resistant to some vaccines
-War/conflict/refugees/migration disrupt a country's ability to respond to Malaria and makes it worse
-Provision of water areas
Name 8 methods to reduce the impact of Malaria
-Mosquito nets sprayed with insecticide
-Education programmes, to teach people methods of preventing the spread- Rollback malaria Campaign
-Medication/ vaccines like chloroquine, larium and malarone
-Drain breeding grounds (stagnant pools of water)
-Plant Eucalyptus trees
-Put egg white on the surface of water
-Infect mosquitoes with fungus
-Larvae eating fish
-Bacteria grown in fermenting coconuts are broken open and thrown into mosquito- infected ponds
- charities e.g. The Bill and Malinda Gates Foundation
What are the positive and negatives of mosquito nets?
Positive- Cheapest and simplest method, easily obtained
Negative- Not everyone can afford them, people using them for fishing nets, everyone in a household needs one.
What are the positive and negatives of education programmes?
Positive- People can take precautions to protect themselves, kids can take info back to the family.
Negative- High illiteracy rates, remote areas are neglected
What are the positive and negatives of medication/ vaccines?
Positive- Disease can be controlled and eventually wiped out
Negative- Mosquitoes are becoming resistant, can be expensive
What are the positive and negatives of planting eucalyptus trees?
Positive- They soak up extra water
Negative- Some areas have stony soils that can't support eucalyptus trees, expensive and takes years to grow
What are the positive and negatives of putting egg whites on the surface of water?
Positive- Drown the larvae
Negative- Increase of other pests that will eat the egg whites, waste of food. Only suitable for small areas of water
What are the positive and negatives of infecting mosquitoes with a fungus?
Positive- Means that males are unable to mate successfully and will die
What is primary health care?
It is cheaper healthcare methods that can have the highest impact, especially in rural, remote and poverty stricken regions and countries
Name 8 methods of primary healthcare
- Barefoot Doctors
-Build more local clinics in rural areas
-Educate more people about health matters and raise awareness of how they can keep in good health
-Use new tech to overcome the downslides of distance and poverty- using wifi to contact doctors far away
-Using oral rehydration therapy as a way to treat dehydration
-Utilise the resources from international aid agencies
-The creation of more family planning clinics, to help provide resources and information
-Promotion of vaccination programmes
What is a barefoot doctor?
It is a rural resident trained in basic medical knowledge that can treat the local residents. It is good as they are able to give longer appointments and they will also be well known in the community, however, they still only have a limited knowledge.
What is oral rehydration therapy?
It involves drinking water with modest amounts of sugar and salts, specifically sodium and potassium
Give an example of help from an international aid agency
Oxfam has projects in India that focus on obstetric care, contraception and educating some women in family planning
Give an example of vaccination programmes in developing countries
-Government led anti malarial programmes in Tanzania
-Polio, tetanus and measles programmes in Benin
Give an example of family planning clinics opening up in developing countries
In 2017 the Rwandan Government looked at opening a lot more family planning clinics in rural areas to try and educate women and raise the access to contraception from 72% of women to 82%.
Name 10 factors that influence the development levels between countries
-A lot of the money is spent on arms rather than the people
- Not enough land space for food (cash crops)
-Poor roads (hard to transport across the country)
-Level of industrialisation
-Quality of education
Name 10 factors that have affected Malaysias development
-It has abundant natural resources (oil)
-Ideal location (travel links with the rest of the world)
-Top producer and exporter of palm oil (rubber/cocoa)
-Top exporter of mechanical parts
-Has signed investment guarantees with over 60 countries
-Signed double taxations with over 40 countries
-Young and motivated work force
-Lots of cheap labour
-Less industrial disputes/strikes