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Flashcards in Development Disorders Deck (20):

What is a neurulation defect?

- The neural tube does not close during neurulation (the stage of embryogenesis that includes the formation and closure of the neural tube)


What is a myeloschisis?

- Developmental anomaly characterized by a cleft spinal cord due to a failure of the neuroplate to form a complete tube


What is the most common type of spina bifida?

- Spina bifida occulta


What is spina bifida occulta?

- The neural arches fail to fuse dorsally


Where does spinal bifida occulta typically occur on along the cord?

- Cadually


What are the effects of spina bifida occulta?

- Cosmetic
- A dimple in the back of the bertebrae where the spinous process should be
- A tuff of hair


What is a meningocele?

- Subarachnoid space bulges through unfused neural arches (mesodermal arch doesn't completely close at all)


What 2 protective layers of the the spinal cord bulge out in a meningocele?

- Dura and arachnoid


How is the spinal cord affected in meningocele?

- The spinal cord remains in tact


What is a meningomyelocele?

- Spinal cord and nerve root bulge through neural arches


What is the difference between a meningocele, and a meningomyelocele?

- The spinal cord grows into the cyst


What is the surgical procedure for a meningomyelocele?

- The cord may be pushed back into the vertebral column


What is a syringomyelocele?

- The spinal cord bulges through the neural arches, and develops abnormally


What is a myelocele?

- There is a gap in the neural arch, but there is no fluid filled cyst, so the cord is completely exposed to the environment.


Which types of spina bifida are incompatible with life?

- Myelocele
- Syringomyelocele


What is Arnold-Chiari syndrome?

- Congenital anomaly in which the cerebellum and medulla protrude down into the spinal cord through the foramen magnum


What is anencephaly?

- The congenital absence of the cranial vault, with a failure of the cerebral hemispheres to develop as a result of a defect in the dvelopment of the rostral neural tube


What is a meningoencephalocele?

- Protrusion of part of the cerebellum that is covered by meninges and skin


How is a meningoencephalocele named?

By the partion of the skull through which it protrudes.

ex) Occipital, frontal, etc..


What is a meningohydroencephalocele?

- Protrusion of part of the occipital lobe that contains a portion of the psoterior horn of a lateral ventricle