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Flashcards in Development Disorders Deck (20):
1

What is a neurulation defect?

- The neural tube does not close during neurulation (the stage of embryogenesis that includes the formation and closure of the neural tube)

2

What is a myeloschisis?

- Developmental anomaly characterized by a cleft spinal cord due to a failure of the neuroplate to form a complete tube

3

What is the most common type of spina bifida?

- Spina bifida occulta

4

What is spina bifida occulta?

- The neural arches fail to fuse dorsally

5

Where does spinal bifida occulta typically occur on along the cord?

- Cadually

6

What are the effects of spina bifida occulta?

- Cosmetic
- A dimple in the back of the bertebrae where the spinous process should be
- A tuff of hair

7

What is a meningocele?

- Subarachnoid space bulges through unfused neural arches (mesodermal arch doesn't completely close at all)

8

What 2 protective layers of the the spinal cord bulge out in a meningocele?

- Dura and arachnoid

9

How is the spinal cord affected in meningocele?

- The spinal cord remains in tact

10

What is a meningomyelocele?

- Spinal cord and nerve root bulge through neural arches

11

What is the difference between a meningocele, and a meningomyelocele?

- The spinal cord grows into the cyst

12

What is the surgical procedure for a meningomyelocele?

- The cord may be pushed back into the vertebral column

13

What is a syringomyelocele?

- The spinal cord bulges through the neural arches, and develops abnormally

14

What is a myelocele?

- There is a gap in the neural arch, but there is no fluid filled cyst, so the cord is completely exposed to the environment.

15

Which types of spina bifida are incompatible with life?

- Myelocele
- Syringomyelocele

16

What is Arnold-Chiari syndrome?

- Congenital anomaly in which the cerebellum and medulla protrude down into the spinal cord through the foramen magnum

17

What is anencephaly?

- The congenital absence of the cranial vault, with a failure of the cerebral hemispheres to develop as a result of a defect in the dvelopment of the rostral neural tube

18

What is a meningoencephalocele?

- Protrusion of part of the cerebellum that is covered by meninges and skin

19

How is a meningoencephalocele named?

By the partion of the skull through which it protrudes.

ex) Occipital, frontal, etc..

20

What is a meningohydroencephalocele?

- Protrusion of part of the occipital lobe that contains a portion of the psoterior horn of a lateral ventricle